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Flashcards in Vibrio Deck (27)
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1

Shape?

Curved, Gram Negative rods. Oxidase positive.

2

Can they move?

Yes. Motile via polar flagella.

3

What environment are they found in?

Saltwater. Warm months allows more to survive...thus disease occurs in warm months. Don't eat oysters in the summer.

4

What are the 3 significant Vibrio human pathogens?

1. V. cholerae
2. V. parahaemolyticus
3. V. vulnificus

5

Where is cholera endemic?

Asia, Africa, South America, and Rutvi's homeland

6

How is cholera spread?

Contaminated water and food

7

What carries cholera?

Humans and environmental reservoirs

8

What serogroups of V. cholerae are responsible for epidemic and pandemic cholera?

O1 and O139

9

What are the 2 subtypes of the O1 serogroup of V. cholera?

1. El Tor
2. Classical

10

What is the incubation period of V. cholera?

2-3 days after ingestion of contaminated source

11

Dose of cholera required to be infectious?

Very high: >10^8 CFU

12

Clinical presentation of cholera?

1. Abrupt onset of vomiting and high volume watery diarrhea (20 L/day)
2. Rice-water stools: speckled w/ mucus and loaded w/ bugs

13

What causes the high volume watery diarrhea of cholera?

Cholera toxin (chloride channel activation)

14

What do cholera patients usually die of?

Dehydration b/c they shit their brains out

15

Virulence factors of V. cholera?

1. TCP: PAI-encoded pilus
2. Phage-encoded toxin

16

What are the characteristics of cholera toxin?

1. Lysogenic phage encoded
2. AB toxin composed of 5 B's and 1 A subunit
3. ADP-ribosylates GTP-binding protein which causes activation of AC...cAMP....Cl channel activation

17

Diagnosis of cholera?

Stool culture on TCBS (Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose) or MacConkey agars

18

Treatment of cholera?

1. Oral Rehydration Therapy
2. Doxy or Erythromycin

19

What does V. parahaemolyticus cause?

Seafood-associated food poisoning. MC in Japan. Gulf and Pacific coasts of US in the warm months.

20

Clinical presentation of V. parahaemolyticus infection?

1. Watery diarrhea often w/ abdominal cramps
2. N/V
3. Low grade fever

21

How long after exposure to V. parahaemolyticus will symptoms develop?

24 hours

22

Treatment for V. parahaemolyticus?

Usually self-limiting. Tx rarely needed.

23

What do V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus have in common?

Both are free living in sea water

24

How is V. vulnificus spread?

Consumpiton of raw oysters or wound infection (cellulitis)

25

What is the clinical presentation of V. vulnificus infection?

1. Vomiting
2. Diarrhea
3. Abdominal cramps
Rare infection but 20% mortality rate.

26

How can V. vulnificus manifest in immunocompromised or chronic liver patients?

1. Septicemia
2. Bullae

27

Treatment of V. vulnificus?

Doxy