VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Flashcards Preview

Topnotch Pathology > VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in VIII - Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Deck (63):
2

A gas formed by sunlight-driven reactions involving nitrogen oxides. Together with oxides and fine particulate matter, it forms "smog".

Ozone(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

3

A nonirritating , colorless, tasteless, odorless gas produced bu the imperfect oxidation of carbonaceous materials. Binds to hemoglobin with high affinity causing systemic asphyxiation and CNS depression.

Carbon monoxide(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

4

Carbon monoxide in the blood is called _______.

Carboxyhemoglobin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 282

5

Acute poisoning of carbon monoxide produces this characteristic color of the skin and mucous membranes.

Cherry red color(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 283

6

Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, peripheral demyelinating neuropathy which manifests as footdrop and wristdrop, colic characterized by extremely severe, poorly localized abdominal pain, and chronic renal damage are the features of poisoning with this heavy metal.

Lead(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 283

7

Main source of exposure to this heavy metal are contamintaed fish and dental amalgams, causing tremor, gingivitis and bizarre behavior.

Mercury(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

8

Consumption of fish contaminated with methyl mercury causing cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, and major CNS defects in children exposed in utero.

Minamata disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

9

Antidote for mercury poisoning.

Thimerosal(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

10

Chronic exposure with this heavy metal results in hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis which may develop into basal or squamous cell carcinomas.

Arsenic(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

11

This heavy metal is used mainly in batteries and fertilizers, which can contaminate soil. Can cause obstructive lung disease and kidney damage.

Cadmium(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

12

Disease caused by cadmium in Japan, presenting as a combination of osteoporosis and osteomalacia, associated with renal disease.

Itai-itai disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 285

13

May be released from combustion of fossil fuels, burning of coal and gas, and also present in tar and soot. Among the most potent carcinogens, implicated in lung and bladder cancer.

Polycyclic hydrocarbons(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

14

Synthetic products that resist degradation and are lipophilic, typically used as pesticides, with anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity, and causes neurologic toxicity.

Organochlorines (e.g. DDT)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

15

These can cause skin disorders such as folliculitis and chloracne, consisting of acne, cyst formation, hyperpigmentation, and hyperkeratosis, around the face and behind the ears.

Dioxins and Polychlorinatedbiphenyls (PCB)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

16

It is the most preventable cause of human death.

Smoking(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 287

17

Components of cigarette smoke that are potent carcinogens in animals and are most likely involved in the causation of lung carcinomas in humans.

Polycyclic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 288

18

A long acting tetracycline which can cause a diffuse blue-gray pigmentation of the skin.

Minocycline(TOPNOTCH)

19

Chronic alcoholics are at an increased risk of developing this type of cancer as a result of liver injury.

Hepatocellular carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 290

20

These refer to untoward effects of drugs that are given in conventional therapeutic settings.

Adverse drug reactions(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 291

21

A long acting tetracycline which can cause a diffuse blue-gray pigmentation of the skin.

Minocycline(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 293

22

Oral contraceptives have a protective effect against these cancers.

Endometrial and ovarian CA(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

23

Oral contraceptives may increase the risk of developing this type of cancer in women.

Cervical CA(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

24

Prolonged use of oral contraceptives is associated with the development of this rare benign tumor especially in older women.

Hepatic adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

25

Toxic metabolite of paracetamol or acetaminophen.

NAPQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

26

Toxic dose for acetaminophen.

15-25 grams/day(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

27

Antidote for acetaminophen poisoning.

N-acetylcysteine(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

28

Manifested by headache, dizziness, tinnitus, difficulty of hearing, mental confusion, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, with CNS changes that can progress to convulsions and coma.

Salicylism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

29

Adult toxic dose of aspirin.

10-30 grams(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

30

Mixtures of aspirin and phenacetin, or its active metabolite acetaminophen, when taken over several years can cause tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal papillary necrosis called _______.

Analgesic nephropathy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 294

31

This drug of abuse can precipitate lethal arrythmias, hyperpyrexia, seizures, amd respiratory arrest during acute overdose. Causes nasal septal perforation, decrease in lung diffusing capacity in those who inhale smoke and dilated cardiomyopathy during chronic use.

Cocaine or "crack" (cocaine derivative)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 295

32

Addictive opiod derived from the poppy plant which can cause euphoria, hallucinations, somnolence, sedation, and increased risk of sudden death.

Heroin(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 296

33

Drug made from the leaves of Cannabis sativa plant which can cause distortion of sensory perception and impairs motor coordination.

Marijuana(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 297

34

Psychoactive substance found in marijuana.

Delta 9- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 297

35

Mechanism of action of aspirin.

Irreversibly blocks the enzyme cyclooxygenase.(TOPNOTCHRobbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 297

36

A wound produced by scraping or rubbing resulting in removal of superficial layer of the skin.

Abrasion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

37

A wound usually produced by a blunt object, characterized by damage to blood vessels and extravasation of blood into tissues.

Contusion (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

38

A tear or disruptive stretching of tissue caused by the application of force by a blunt object, causing jagged and irregular edges to the skin.

Laceration(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

39

A wound inflicted by a sharp instrument, wherein bridging blood vessels are severed.

Incision(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

40

A wound caused by a long, narrow instrument.

Puncture wound(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

41

Burn classification which involves total destruction of the epidermis and dermis, with loss of thermal appendages.

Full thickness burn (3rd and 4th degree)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

42

Burn classification wherein the thermal appendages are spared but involves at least the deeper portions of the skin.

Partial thickness burn(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

43

Partial thickness burn that involves both the epidermis and superficial dermis.

Second degree burn(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

44

Partial thickness burn that involves the epidermis only.

First degree burn(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

45

Grossly, these burns are white or charred and anesthetic due to nerve ending destruction.

Full thickness burns(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

46

These burns are pink or mottled with blisters and are painful.

Second degree burn (partial thickness)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

47

Histologic change in the skin during burns.

Coagulative necrosis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 298

48

Leading cause of death in burn patients.

Organ system failure secondary to burn sepsis.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 299

49

Cramping of voluntary muscles in association with vigorous exercise as a result of electrolyte loss via sweating.

Heat cramps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 299

50

Most common hyperthermic syndrome. A sudden onset of prostration and collapse, resulting from failure of the cardiovascular system to compensate for hypovolemia, secondary to water depletion.

Heat exhaustion(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 299

51

Associated with high ambient temperatures and high humidity. Thermoregulatory mechanisms fail, sweating ceases and core body temperature rises. Due to marked generalized peripheral vasodilation with peripheral pooling of blood and decreased effective circulating volume.

Heat stroke(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 299

52

Two types of injuries caused by electricity.

BurnsVFib or cardiac and respiratory center failure(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 299

53

This may injure cells directly or indirectly by generating free radicals from water or molecular oxygen, damages DNA and rapidly dividing cells. Exposure may predispose to neoplastic transformation, vascular damage, sclerosis and tissue fibrosis.

Ionizing radiation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 300

54

Malnutrition caused by lack of nutrients from the diet.

Primary malnutrition(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 304

55

Malnutrition caused by malabsorption, impaired nutrient utilization or storage, excess losses or increased nutrient needs.

Secondary or conditioned malnutrition(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 304

56

Protein energy malnutrition which occurs when protein deprivation is relatively greater than reduction in total calories. Associated with generalized edema, flaky paint appearance of the skin, alternating bands of pale and dark hair, enlarged fatty liver, apathy, listlessness and loss of appetite.

Kwashiorkor(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 305

57

Protein energy malnutrition caused by a decrease in both protein and calorie intake, and weight falls below 60% of normal for sex, height and age. Serum albumin is normal or slightly reduced.

Marasmus(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 305

58

Self-induced starvation, resulting in marked weight loss.

Anorexia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 306

59

A condition wherein a patient binges on food and then induces vomiting.

Bulimia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 306

60

Deficiency of this vitamin causes night blindness, xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, Bitot spots and eventually corneal ulceration.

Vitamin A(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 307

61

Condition in children as result of vitamin D deficiency causing the following signs and symptoms: frontal bossing of the head, rachitic rosary, pigeon breast deformity, lumbar lordosis and bow legs.

Rickets (children)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 309

62

Deficieny of this vitamin causes impaired collagen formation, leading to gum bleeding, easy bruisability, and impaired wound healing.

Vitamin C (Scurvy)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 312

63

Symptoms of cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis and corneal vascularization results from deficiency of this vitamin.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 314

64

Symptoms of cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p. 314