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Flashcards in VIM ROS Deck (21):

Determining the precise impact of humans
Difficult due to the following:

1) Little baseline data exists for comparison

2) It is difficult to untangle the roles of humans and nature (e.g. global warming/climate change)

3) Spatial and temporal distances between cause and effect (where does the air come from?)

4) In ecosystem interactions, difficult to isolate individual components


Shifting Baseline Hypothesis

Four Fish (book)


Natural resource planners must contend with:

both ecological and social issues; not one or the other.



An Integrated Framework of Coexistence


Policy and Planning

Visitor Impact Management (VIM)
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS)
Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC)
Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP)
Management Process for Visitor Activities (VAMP)


The VIM Paradigm

Integrated tourist management; managing visitors, activities, and their impacts
Effective management involves both scientific and judgment considerations.
---Objective vs. subjective
---Scientifically documenting impacts and establishing relationships
---Assessing various management plans with respect to visitor experience.
Win-win situation if impacts to the resource are reduced without significantly reducing visitor experience and satisfaction.


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 1

Pre-assessment - Data Base Review
Identify and summarize what is known
-Literature review
-Legislative & Policy mandates
-Existing data regarding problems & impact
Produce a baseline document on patterns and impact
Define management objectives


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 2

Review Management Objectives
Consistent with legislative & policy mandates
Who is/are the constituency for the area?
Hunters?, anglers?, backpackers?
Significance to wildlife
Visitor experience & use
-User groups & levels of use -high, creative, general, occasional
Potential conflicts or compatibility
Clear statement of objectives and use.


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 3

Selection of Key Impact Indicators
Identify measurable social and ecological variables
Choose important impacts (judgement)
-Easily observable & measurable
Establish impact units- visitor-days, wildlife diversity, % cover, etc.
Generate a list of Indicators
% ground cover (herbaceous layer)
Turbidity of water, etc.


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 4

Select Standards for Impact
Restate objectives of 2 in terms of acceptable/unacceptable levels
-Loss of veg. Cover (e.g. 20% acceptable)
Statement of desired conditions


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 5

Comparison of Existing Conditions to Stated Objectives
Establish levels of compliance or discrepancies
e.g. 40% of campsites are unacceptable, 75% of trails unaccepatable)
If no discrepancies exist, monitor, or proceed t0 6


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 6

Identify Probable Cause(s) for Problems
Examine full range of impacts
Isolate most important factors
Likely to be complex


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 7

Management Strategies
Identify potential management strategies
Produce a matrix of possible management methods based on:
-Ease of implementation
-Levels of impact on visitors and wildlife and or habitat-


Visitor Impact Management Framework: 8

Implement Management Plan


Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

ROS is a tool used to support definition and management of diverse outdoor recreation opportunities. It is based on the assumption that a range of factors (e.g., ease of access, density of use) contribute to recreation experiences, and through arraying various combinations of these factors, distinct recreation opportunities may be defined and managed.


General Principles of ROS

Change is characteristic of natural environments.
Impacts are the inevitable result of recreational use.
Impacts have predictable patterns in space and time.
Impacts vary greatly between environments.
Impacts vary greatly with type of use and mode of travel.
All elements of the environment are interrelated.


Planning for ROS

Promoting recreational diversity
Recreationists participate in their activities at different levels and in different physical, biological, social, managerial settings and at different times.
To serve all, a diversity of opportunities must be promoted and provided
The process comprises six land classes to aid in understanding physical, biological, social and managerial relationships, and to set parameters and guidelines for management of recreation opportunities.


Seven setting indicators have been identified for ROS

They represent aspects of recreation settings that facilitate a range of experiences that can be influenced by managers.
1. Access
2. Remoteness
3. Visual Characteristics
4. Site Management
5. Visitor Management
6. Social Encounters
7. Visitor Impacts


ROS steps

1. Inventory and map the three setting perspectives that affect the experience of the recreationalist, namely the physical, social, and managerial components.
2. Complete analysis:
a) identify setting inconsistencies;
b) define recreation opportunity classes;
c) integrate with forest management activities;
d) identify conflicts and recommend mitigation.
3. Schedule.
4. Design.
5. Execute projects.
6. Monitor.


Opportunity Classes of ROS

ROS is based on the premise that people expect certain levels of development related to the character of the setting and the type of recreation they prefer. For example, a facility intended to create a safe, controlled environment for large numbers of people should be highly developed using modern materials and providing ample conveniences. Consistent with visitor expectations, a more primitive “backwoods” area would have far fewer constructed elements. Those would generally be small in scale and made of natural materials.


Classes listed (ROS)

-No facilities
Semi-primitive, non-motorized
-rustic, rudimentary
-Human contact increases
Semi-primitive, motorized
-Rustic, rudimentary, comfort, natural materials
-Human contact increases
Roaded natural
-User comfort, synthetic material
-Human contact increases
-Facilities for comfort, complex design
-Human contact
-User comfort primary, highly complex design
-Crowded, high human contact