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Flashcards in Vinification Deck (88):
1

Name six fungal diseases

Powdery Mildew (Oidium)-Uncinula Necator
Downy Mildew (Peronospora)-Plasmopara viticola
Eutypa Dieback- Eutypa lata
Esca (Black Measles)
Black Rot- Guignardia bidwelli
Bunch Rot

2

Define Debourbage

Allowing juice to settle after pressing

3

Define Soutirage

Racking

4

Define Battonage

Lees Stirring

5

Define Microbullage

Micro Oxgenation- used with oak chips in stainless steel for cheap wood flavor

6

Define Flavescence Doree

Phytoplasma Disease- grapevine yellows, leaf hoppers and propgation spread the disease

7

Define Esca

Fungal- AKA Black Rot, Caused by Guignardia bidwelli can be controled through fungal sprays

8

Define Downy Mildew

Fungal- AKA Peronospora- (Plasmopara viticola) attacks green parts and causes vine to drop leaves. looks like and oil spot on the leaves. Bordeaux mixture to control

9

Define Pierce's Disease

Bacterial- Caused by Xylella Fastdiosa- transmitted by the glassywinged Sharp shooter. Will not allow vine to produce chlorophyll- thus killing the vine within 5 years. No known cure

10

Define Leaf Roll Virus

Caused by a complex of nine viruses. reduces yeilds and ripening- can be seen in the beautiful fall colors. Spread through mealy bug

11

What is responsible for volitale acidity

ethyl acetate

12

What Bacteria causes Pierce's Disease

Xylella Fastidiosa

13

Sulfur dioxide is a sulfite or sulfide

Sulfite

14

Define Elevage

Maturation

15

Define Reverse Osmosis

A way to remove alcohol, sepereates wine into two part; permeate and retenate.

16

What disease is spread by nematodes

Fanleaf Degeneration

17

Name two viral diseases

Leafroll Virus- mealy bugs
Fanleaf Degeneration- Nematodeas

18

Name the one Phytoplasma Diesease

Flavescence Doree- Leafhopper

19

Define Eutypa Dieback

Fungal- AKA Dead-arm, caused by Eutypa Lata. Carried by rain. Significantly reduces yeild but not quality

20

Define Bacterial Blight

Caused by Xanthomonas Ampelina, Spread by rain and tool, controlled by bordeaux and hot water

21

Define Collage- and how can it be done

Fining- Casen, egg whites, gelatin, Bentonite

22

Name three bacterial diseases

Pierce's Disease (Xylella fastidiosa)- Transmitted by sharpshooters
Crown Gall (Black Knot)-Agrobacterium tumefaciens- budwood
Bacterial Blight-Xanthomonas ampelina rain and pruning tools

23

Define Powdery Mildew

Fungal- Uncinula necator, fungus spread through humid dry areas. Affects green parts and inhibits bunch development and ripening. Controlled through sulfer and fungiacides.

24

Define Bunch Rot

Fungal- grouping of similar diseases. Botrytis is the most common form of bunch rot- Cinerea- is the malevolent form

25

Define Lactones

Responsible for oaky aromas

26

Define Fanleaf Degeneration

Virus- Spread by nematodes. leads to lower yeilds, poor fruit set and shot berries (no seeds) 9 different viruses

27

Define Peronospora

Downy Mildew (Fungal)-Plasmopara viticola

28

Define Remotage

Pumping over the cap

29

Define Chapeau

Cap (grape skins)

30

Define Crown Gall

Bacterial- AKA black knot, caused by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens. Vines develp tumors. Spread through budwood

31

Define Isinglass

Sturgeon Bladder- used in Filtration

32

What is the compound responsible for buttery aroma

Diacetyl

33

Define Delestage

Wine is racked off and cap drains completely. Then pumped back over

34

What are the three steps to making a barrel

Chauffage- Warming
Cintage- Shaping
Bousinage- Toasting

35

Define Oidium

Uncinula necator,Thrives in humid and dry conditions. Affects the green parts of the plant marking leaves and shoots with dusty white mildew.
Reduces yeailds, berries struggle to reach verasion.
Controlled by sulfur and fungicides

36

Define Pigeage

Punching down the cap

37

Simply Outline the life cycle of a vine

Weeping (Feb)
Budbreak (March April)
Embryo (mid April)
Flowering (6-15wk post bud)
Fruit Set
Verasion (August)

38

What temperature does a vine emerge from dormancy.

50

39

What is a vines perfered temperature

a mean of 57 (50-68)

40

What is the average temperature to ripen red grapes

70

41

What is the average temperature to ripen white grapes

66

42

How much rainfall does a vine require

20-30 inches

43

What is the difference of:
Macroclimate
Mesoclimate
Microclimate

Macro- large sweeping factors
Meso- Specific to the vineyard
Micro- In and around the space of the vines

44

If there is a high soil pH, grapes will then have high or low pH

Low pH, therefore higher acidity in wines

45

Define Colonal Selection

Selecting the best vine and propgating

46

Define Massal Selection

A selection of vines throughout a vineyard that show the best traits

47

Define Cordon Training

The vine has one permanent cane that extends from the trunk called a cordon or arm, may only be spur pruned

48

If a vine has at least a single cane extending from trunk what is the name of the training

Cordon

49

Define Head Training

Vines have no permanent cordon and the trunk ends in a knob AKA bush vines, may be spur or crane pruned

50

If a vine has no cordons then it is train what way

Head

51

Define Spur Pruning

A cane cut back to only two buds

52

Define Cane Pruning

Grower must keep one spur and one cane, the number of buds can be 6-12+

53

Define the Guyot System (Cane Prune Head Trained)

Requires a vertical trellis on which the canes can be suspended

54

Define the Gobelet System (Spur Pruned Head Trained

Left to grow up

55

What is the Goblet System called in Spain

En Vaso

56

Define En Vaso

Gobelet System in Spain

57

What is the Goblet System called in Italy

Albarello

58

Define Albarello

Goblet system in Italy

59

What is a classic Crane Pruned, Head Trained system called

Guyot

60

What is a Classic Spur Pruned, Head Trained system called

Gobelet

61

What is a Spur Pruned, Cordon Trained system called

Cordon de Royat

62

Where do you see Cordon de Royat systems used most often

For Pinot Noir in Champagne

63

Define VSP

Vertical Shoot Positioning- A system used with either spur or cane pruned vines

64

Define Tendrone System

Vines grow upward and tall and worker work under them, Called Perolga in Italy and Enforcado in Portugal

65

A Pergola system is what

It is a Tendrone system used in Italy

66

A Enforcado system is what

It is a Tendrone system used in Portugal

67

What disease does Xylella fastidiosa cause

Pierce's Disease

68

What disease does Agrobacterium tumefaciens cause

Crown Gall (Black Knot)

69

What disease does Xanthomonas ampelina cause

Bacterial Blight

70

What is Acetaldehyde

It is a chemical that causes oxidation in wines and is the last link in the chain of changing sugar to alcohol

71

What is the Chemical that is responsible for oxidation in Wine

Acetaldehyde

72

What are a few examples of Sulfides

Mercaptans, Hydrogen Sulfide, and reductive smells

73

What is the temperature range for yeast to react with sugar

Between 50 and 113F

74

What are two types of acid that can be added to wine during

Tartaric and malic, Tartaric acid is added prior to fermentation is perfered

75

What is Diacytal

It is the chemical responsible for butter aromas and is a byproduct of malolactic fermentation

76

Define Carbonic Maceration

It is intercellular fermentaion

77

Define anthocyanins

Color compounds achieved from skin maceraction

78

Define Vin de Goutte

Free Run juice

79

Define Vin de Presse

Juice that comes from the pressing of wine

80

What is the maturation period called in french

Elevage

81

Define Süssreserve

Süssreserve is sterile grape juice that can be added back into wine to increase its sweetness

82

Define the two basic method of Rose production

1. Blending-adding a red and white base together
2. Saignée- leaving the skins and juice together for a short amount of time

83

What two chemicals can be added to wine from Oak

lactones, phenolic aldehydes such as vanillin—and wood tannin

84

What are the different species of oak used in winemaking

French- Quercus Rubis and Quercus Petraea
American- Quercus Alba

85

What is the common name for Quercus Alba

American White Oak

86

Define Peronospera

Downey Mildew

87

Define Oidium

Powdery Mildew

88

Who is VINEA

An organization dedicated to sustainable winemaking in Walla Walla