Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract Flashcards Preview

Micro Exam II > Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract Deck (74):
1

Symptoms of the common cold

rhinitis, pharyngitis, no high fever, LRT involvement or respiratory distress

2

Mode of transportation of the common cold

direct contact with nasal secretions, large droplets, contaminated fomites

3

What viruses most frequently cause the common cold

-most common is rhinovirus
-coronavirus

4

Rhinovirus characteristcs

non-enveloped
+ss-RNA
picornavirus family member

5

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease symptoms

fever
vesicular lesions on palms of hand and soles of feet and oral areas

6

Croup symptoms

fever, distinct brassy cough - sounds like seal's bark
inspiratory stridor
nasal discharge, mild cough, pharynigitis

7

Herpangina symptoms

abrupt onset of fevers
small vesicles on soft palate, form small white ulcers when ruptured

8

What is the agent of hand foot and mouth disease

coxsackievirus

9

What is the agent of herpangina

coxsackievirus

10

Coxsackievirus characteristics

enterovirus subfamily of picornaviruses
nonveneloped
+ssRNA

11

How are most coxackieviruses transmitted

fecal-oral

12

What are possible complications to herpangina

meningitis, encephalitis

13

What does a croup radiograph look like?

narrowing of air shadow of trachea in subglottic area

14

How do you tell if croup is severe or not

if they have stridor at rest

15

How do you treat non-severe croup

humidified air
hydration

16

How do you treat severe croup

oxygen
epinephrine
glucocorticoids

17

What is croup caused by?

parainfluenza virus

18

How are parainfluenza viruses spread?

droplets, direct contact

19

Uncomplicated influenza symptoms

myalgia
headache
fever
shaking chills
cough, fatique, generalized weakness that may last 2-6 weeks

20

incidence of influenza

peak during the winter months in temperate climates

21

Major differences between influenza and cold

influenza lasts way longer, cough is more prominent

22

Hemagglutinin

viral attachment protein
agglutinates RBC

23

Neuramindase

Cleaves sialic acid
helps spread viruses through mucus found in the respiratory tract

24

Influenza Type A severity

Often severe

25

Influenza Type B severity

occasionally severe

26

Influenza Type C severtiy

usually mild

27

Host of influenza type A

humans, swine, avian, equines, marine mammals

28

Host of infleunza type B

humans

29

Host of influenza type C

humans, swine

30

Antigen change in influenza A

antigenic drift and shift

31

antigen change in influenza B

antigenic drift

32

antigen change in influenza C

antigenic drift

33

Antigenic Drift in influenza

small changes in H and N
driven by point mutations

34

Antigenic shift in influenza

increases risk for pandemics
large changes in H and N
driven by re-assortment of 2 viruses that happens when 2 viruses co-infect the same cell

35

Agent of IIV

formaldehyde inactivated influenza viruses

36

How is IIV administered

IM or ID

37

Who is eligible for IM IIV

anyone over 6 mons.

38

What is strain composition of IM IIV

trivalent or quadrivalent

39

What is the straign composition of ID IIV

trivalent

40

Who is eligible for ID IIV

18-64

41

Agent of LAIV

attenuated influenza viruses

42

How is LAIV administered?

intranasally

43

Who is eligible for LAIV

healthy, nonpregnant people 2-49

44

What is the strain composition of LAIV

quadrivalent

45

What is the agent of RIV?

hemagglutinin protein

46

How is RIV administered?

IM

47

Who is eligible for RIV

18-49 yo

48

What is the strain composition of RIV?

trivalent

49

zanamirivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir

neuraminidase inhibitors
effective against influenza A and B
given within 48 h

50

amantadine and rimantadine

ion channel blockers
effective against influenza A
Not really recommended for use

51

How is zanamivir administered

oral inhalation

52

How is oseltamivir administered

oral

53

How is peramivir administered

intravenous

54

RSV

most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in kids less than 1

55

characteristics of RSV

paramyxovirus family
enveloped
-ssRNA

56

How is RSV transmitted

inhalation of large droplets
direct contact with respiratory secretion

57

How do you treat LRT RSV infection

aerosolized ribavirin treatment
only for special populations

58

What is used for RSV passive immunoprophylaxis

palivizumav
RSIG

59

Who gets RSV passive immunoprophylasix

premmies
those less than 2 yo, who have chronic lung problems

60

Which common cold virus exaceraes asthma the most

rhinovirus C

61

What is the incubbation period of rhinovirus

1 to 3 days

62

Non-SARS coronavirus characteristics

enveloped

63

When are the main outbreaks of coronaviruses

spring and winter months

64

Who is most likely to get a non-SATS cornavirus infecetion

infants and kids

65

Adenovirus characteritics

non-enveloped

66

How are adenoviruses transmitted?

oral, droplet inhalation, conjunctiva

67

Pneumonia

inflammation of lung parenchyma, resulting in abnormal gas exchange

68

Primary influenza viruses cause

influenza A

69

Primary influenza virus pneumonia onset

1-4 days after influenza symptoms

70

Bacterial influenza associated pneumonia onset

usually 1 week after influenza symptoms

71

What causes bacterial influenza associated pneumonia

s. pneumoniae

72

Primary influenza virus pneumonia symptoms

increased cough, tachypnea, dyspnea, acute respiratory distress

73

Bacterial influenza associated pneumonia symptoms

have flu symptoms that lessen, then get worse.

74

Which is more dangerous Bacterial influenza associated pneumonia or primary influenza virus pneumonia

virus