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Flashcards in Virology (First Aid) Deck (136):
1

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Answers

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DNA viruses

"HHAPPPy"

Herpes
Hepadnavirus
Adenovirus
Parvovirus
Papillomavirus
Polyomavirus
Poxvirus

3

Herpesviruses (7)

HSV-1
HSV-2
VZV
EBV
CMV
HHV-6
HHV-7

4

Oral (but some genital) lesions
Keratoconjunctivitis

HSV-1

5

Genital (but some oral) lesions

HSV-2

6

Mononucleosis and Burkitt's lymphoma

EBV

7

Infxn in ICH, esp. transplant Pts
Congential defects

CMV

8

Roseola (exanthum subitum)

HHV-6

9

Kaposi sarcoma

HHV-8

10

Hepadnavirus (1)

Hepatitis B Virus

11

HBV

Acute or chronic hepatitis

Vaccine available

Not a retrovirus, but has RT

12

Febrile pharyngitis-Sore throat
Pneumonia
Conjunctivitis (pink eye)

Adenovirus

13

Parvovirus

Parvo B19

14

Parvo B19

"slapped cheeks" and lacy, reticular rash

Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)

Hydrops fetalis (congenital)

Aplastic crisis in sickle cell

15

"slapped cheeks" rash

Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)

Hydrops fetalis

Aplastic crisis in sickle cell

Parvo B19

16

What's special about Parvo B19?

It's the only ssDNA virus

17

Warts, CIN, cervical cancer

HPV

18

Polyomavirus (2)

JC Virus

BK virus

19

JC Virus

PML in HIV

(progressive multifocal leukonencephalopathy)
white matter demyelination--increased MRI enhancement

20

PML in HIV

(progressive multifocal leukonencephalopathy)
white matter demyelination--increased MRI enhancement

JC Virus

21

BK virus

Renal transplant rejection

Hemorrhagic cystitis

22

Renal transplant rejection

Hemorrhagic cystitis

BK virus

23

Poxvirus (3)

Smallpox

Vaccinia (cow pox) - "milkmaid's blisters"

Molluscum contagiosum

24

Molluscum contagiosum

Umbilicated papular skin lesions

(Peds, ICH)

25

Umbilicated papular skin lesions

(Peds, ICH)

Molluscum contagiosum (Poxvirus)

26

Name the RNA viruses

Any virus that isn't "HHAPPPPy" (mnemonic for DNA viruses)

27

Which DNA virus is the weirdo and why?

Poxviridae

It's the only one that:

is complex, not icosahedral
doesn't replicate in nucleus

28

Picornavirus (5)

"PERCH"

Poliovirus
Echovirus
Rhinovirus
Coxsackievirus
Hepatitis A Virus

29

Secondary spread to CNS (anterior horn cells)

flaccid paralysis (RARE)

Aseptic meningitis

Poliovirus

30

Poliovirus

Secondary spread to CNS (anterior horn cells)

flaccid paralysis (RARE)

Aseptic meningitis

31

Salk/Sabin vaccines

Polio

Salk--inactivated vaccine

Sabin--live attenuated

32

Enterovirus

Coxsackie

Echovirus

Enterovirus

33

Hand-foot-mouth disease

Cardiac involvement

Aseptic meningitis

Enterovirus

(Coxsackie, Echovirus, Enterovirus)

34

Enterovirus

(Coxsackie, Echovirus, Enterovirus)

Hand-foot-mouth disease

Cardiac involvement

Aseptic meningitis

35

Hepatitis A Virus

Picornaviridae

Acute Hepatitis

36

Common cold

Lots of serotypes

Rhinovirus

37

Calciviridae (2)

Norwalk virus

Hepatitis E Virus

38

Gastroenteritis

Cruise ships

Food (shellfish)

Norwalk Virus

39

Reovirus (2)

Reovirus

Rotavirus

40

Colorado tick fever

Reovirus

41

Segmented genome

Gastroenteritis, watery diarrhea

1# cause of fatal diarrhea in peds population

Rotavirus

42

Why is rotavirus so special?

It is the only dsRNA virus

43

Flavivirus (5)

Hepatitis C Virus

Yellow fever

Dengue

St. Louis encephalitis

West Nile virus

44

Aedes aegypti mosquito

Jaundice, hemorrhagic disease, Councilman bodies in liver, black vomitus

Monkey or human reservoir

Live attenuated vaccine

Yellow fever

45

Aedes aegypti mosquito

"break bone fever"

primary infxn: fever, myalgia
secondary infxn: hemorrhagic fever

Dengue fever

46

Mosquitoes and birds

Fever, meningitis, encephalitis

St. Louis Encephalitis virus

47

Mosquitoes and birds

Fever
Encephalitis
FLACCID PARALYSIS

West Nile Virus

48

Togaviruses (3)

Rubella (German Measles)

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

Western Equine Encephalitis

49

Mild post-natal illness

Congenital:

Blueberry muffin rash
deafness
cataracts
PDA
MR

Respiratory/transplacental transmission

Rubella

50

Birds and mosquitoes

Asx or encephalitis

Western Equine Encephalitis

51

Birds, horses, mosquitoes

Myalgia, fever, encephalitis

High mortality if neuro involved

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

52

Retrovirus (2)

HIV
HTLV

53

T-cell leukemia

myelopathy = tropical spastic parapesis

Tropism for CD-4 cells

HTLV-1

54

Coronavirus (2)

SARS (triphasic)

Non-SARS (common cold)

55

Orthomyxovirus (1)

Influenza

56

fever, HA, myalgia, sore throat

Segmented genome

Genetic drift/shift

Live attenuated and killed vaccine

Influenza

57

Paramyxoviruses (4)

"PaRaMyxoviruses"

Parainfluenza
RSV
Measles (Rubeola)
Mumps

58

Croup

Parainfluenza
(PV1)

59

Parotid gland swelling
Orchitis
Respiratory Sx's

Mumps

60

Bronchiolitis/Respiratory Infxns in infants

Synchtial formation

Peaks in winter

RSV

61

What do you treat RSV with?

Ribavarin

62

4C's
(Cough, coryza--headcold, conjunctivity, Koplick's spots--tongue)

Confluent maculopaular rash

Subactute sclerosing panencephalitis

Vitamin A

Measles

63

Subactute sclerosing panencephalitis

Measles

64

Vitamin A associated virus?

Measles

65

Rhabdovirus (1)

Rabies

66

Negri bodies

Bullet-shaped virus

Ascend to CNS: fatal

Bat/raccoon bite: US

Rabies

67

Negri bodies

Rabies

68

Bullet-shaped virus

Rabies

69

What does the location of the Rabies bite tell you about the course of the infxn?

The closer the bite is to the brain, the quicker the course of the disease.

70

Filoviruses (2)

Marburg
Ebola

71

Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever

Ebola

Marburg

72

Arenaviruses (2)

LCV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis)

Lassa

73

Hemorrhagic disease, shock, deafness, encephalitis

Spread by rodents (esp. mice)

Lassa virus (Arenaviridae)

74

Segmented genome

Flu-like illness

Aerosolized rodent urine

LCV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis)

75

Bunyaviruses (2)

California Encephalitis Virus
Hanta Virus

76

Asx or encephalitis

Mosquitoes and forest animals

California Encephalitis Virus

77

Pulmonary syndrome

Rodent droppings get aerosolized

SW US region

Hanta Virus

78

Deltavirus

Hepatitis D Virus

79

Must be co-infected with Hep B

Hepatitis D Virus

80

Primary infxn: gingivostomatitis

Secondary infxn:
cold sore
Herpetic whitlow

HSV-1 (oral)

81

Neonatal HSV Sx's

SEM

CNS

Disseminated

82

Tzank prep

PCR

HSV Dx

83

Atypical lymphocytes

EBV

84

Heterophile (monospot) test +

EBV

85

Lymphoproliferative disease in ICH

EBV

86

Heterophile (monospot) test -

CMV

87

Jaundice
Seizures
Microencephaly
Intracranial CALCIFICATIONS
MR
Chorioretinitis
Hearing loss

Congenital CMV

88

Retinitis and esophagitis in AIDS

CMV

89

CMV in AIDS: Sx's

Retinitis and esophagitis

90

Vesicles in different stages

Chicken pox

(Varicella)

91

Vesicles in same stage

Smallpox

(Poxvirus)

92

Vesicles/lesions on face and trunk

Chickenpox

93

HPV 6-11

Genital warts

Condyloma accuminata

94

HPV 16, 18, 31, 45

Cervical cancer

95

Condyloma lata vs Condyloma accuminata

Lata = syphillis

Accuminata = HPV

96

Dx of HIV?

Elisa then Western Blot

97

Live attenuated virus vaccines induce what type of immunity?

Humoral and Cell-mediated

98

Killed virus vaccines induce what type of immunity?

Humoral

99

Live attenuated Viruses (7)

MMR--Measles, Mumps, Rubella
Sabin (polio)
VZV
Yellow fever
Smallpox

100

Killed Vaccines (4)

"RIP Always"

Rabies
Influenza
Polio (Salk)
Hepatitis A Virus

101

Recombinant Vaccine (1)

Hepatitis B

102

Recombination

Exchange of genes b/w 2 chromosomes by crossover

103

Reassortment

When viruses with segmented genomes exchange segments.

Influenza pandemics.

104

Complementation

When 1 of 2 viruses infect a cell and has a mutation that results in a non-functional protein.

The non-mutated virus "complements" the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses

105

Phenotype mixing

Simultaneous infxn of a cell w/ 2 viruses.

Packaging can result in a phenotypically mixed virus.

106

Negative strand viruses (7)

Use RNA pol to transcribe (-) strand.

"Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication Horribly"

Arenavirus
Bunyavirus
Paramyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
Filovirus
Rhabdovirus
Hepatitis Delta Virus

107

Segmented Viruses (4)

All are RNA viruses.

"BOAR"

Bunyavirus
Orthomyxovirus (Influenza)
Arenavirus
Reovirus

108

HSV Identification

Tzanck test: smear of opened skin vesicles (HSV-1, HSV-2, VSV)

Intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions

"Tzank heavens I do not have herpes!"

109

Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Ag's

Influenza virus

110

Useful drugs for Influenza A and B (2)

Zanamivir and Oseltamivir

111

Which leads to more virulent Influenza Virus: Antigenic Shift or Drift?

"Sudden Shift is more deadly than graDual Drift"

112

Viruses that most commonly infect kids

Paramyxoviruses

Parainfluenza
RSV
Measles
Mumps

113

Giant cell pneumonia

Measles (Rubeola)

114

Arboviruses

Transmitted by arthropods (mosquitoes and ticks)

Classic ex's:
Dengue
Yellow fever

115

Name the hepatitis:

Fecal-oral route.
Short incubation.
No carriers.

Hepatitis A (picornavirus)

"A: Asymptomatic, Acute, Alone (no carriers)"

116

Name the hepatitis:

Parenteral, sexual, maternal-fetal transmission.
Long incubation.
Carriers.
Has reverse transcriptase.

Hepatitis B (hepadnavirus)

"B: Blood borne"

117

Name the hepatitis:

Carried in blood.
Long incubation.
Carriers.
IV Users.

Hepatitis C (flavivirus)

"C: Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carriers"

118

Name the hepatitis:

Defective virus, requires HBV.
Requires HBsAg as envelope.
Carriers.

Hepatitis D (Delta virus)

"D: Defective, Dependant"

119

Name the hepatitis:

Enterically transmitted.
Causes water borne epidemics.
Short incubation.
High mortality in PREGNANT WOMEN.

Hepatitis E (Calciviridae)

"E: Enteric, Expectant mom, Epidemic"

120

Which hepatitis viruses are transmitted via the fecal-oral route?

A and E.

"The VOWELS hit your BOWELS."

121

Name the hepatitis viruses (2):

Chronic active hepatitis
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma

HBV

HCV

122

IgG HAVAb

Prior infxn.

Protective against reinfection.

123

IgM HAVAb

Active hepatitis A.

124

HBsAg

Surface Ag on HBV.

Continued presence indicates carrier state.

125

HBsAb

Ab to HBsAg.

Provides immunity to hepatitis B.

126

HBcAg

Ag associated with core of HBV

127

HBcAb

Ab to HBcAg.

Positive during window period.
Indicator of recent disease.

128

IgG HBcAb

Chronic HBV disease

129

HBeAg

2nd, different antigenic determinant in HBV core

Indicator of active viral replication and transmissibility.

"BEware!"

130

HBeAb

Ab to HBeAg.

Low transmissibility.

131

LFTs in Alcoholic vs. Viral Hepatitis

Alcoholic: ALT< AST

Viral: ALT>AST

132

HIV envelope proteins

gp41 and gp120

133

What does the HIV virus bind to on T-cells?

CXCR4 and CD4

134

What does the HIV virus bind to on Macrophages?

CCR5 and CD4

135

CD4+ count required for AIDS diagnosis?

Less than 200 CD4

HIV+
AIDS indicator conditions
CD4/CD8 ratio < 1.5

136

ELISA/Western blot tests look for what in HIV?

Antibodies to viral proteins.

Often falsely negative 1-2 months of infection.
Often falsely positive initially in babies born to HIV+ moms