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Flashcards in Vision And Visual Perception Deck (26):
1

What is the black hole phenomenon?

A. loss of colour vision in low-light conditions.
B. a reduction in height perception in low-light conditions.
C. a crater formed at the impact site of a crash scene.
D. the unexplained vanishing of an aircraft from radar screens.

B. a reduction in height perception in low-light conditions

2

Which of the following statements about the retina is FALSE?

A. It is made up only of cones.
B. It consists of multiple layers.
C. It is sensitive to oxygen deprivation.
D. Visual images are projected onto it upside-down.

A. It is made up only of cones

3

_____ vision is dependent upon the cones.

A. Double.
B. Black-and-white.
C. Colour.
D. Night.

C. Colour

4

If you are long-sighted, you have good __________ vision, and you need __________ corrective lenses.

A. short, concave.
B. long, convex.
C. long, concave.
D. short, convex.

B. long, convex

5

What type of eye movements is ideal during visual scanning?

A. small, frequent.
B. large, frequent.
C. small, infrequent.
D. large, infrequent.

A. small, frequent

6

Which of the following statements is TRUE of visual illusions?

A. They are caused by improper scanning or failure to scan.
B. They rarely occur when flying.
C. They are only minor annoyances.
D. They can have the same effect on more than one person.

D. They can have the same effect on more than one person

7

A pilot has leveled off in an aircraft and is cruising peacefully through the sky. Suddenly, another plane passes him before he can even figure out what happened. How COULD this happen?

A. break-off phenomenon.
B. black hole effect.
C. empty-field myopia.
D. blind spot.

C. empty-field myopia

8

Which of the following is a common error when flying an approach on a short runway?

A. flying the approach as usual.
B. flying too low.
C. flying too high.
D. landing short.

C. flying too high

9

Vision is sharpest within _____ degrees of the fovea.

A. 20.
B. 1-2.
C. 25.
D. 5.

A. 20

10

Which of the following statements about visual illusions is TRUE?

A. They almost always occur when viewing a runway.
B. They are caused by the brain’s ability to make comparisons.
C. They rarely occur over 10,000 ft AMSL.
D. Pilots must be aware of possible illusions in order to defeat them.

D. Pilots must be aware of possible illusions in order to defeat them

11

Which of the following statements about the eyes is TRUE?

A. Sharp vision is dependent on rods in the fovea.
B. The retina completely covers the back of the eye.
C. Vision is sharpest when looking straight ahead.
D. Peripheral vision is sharpest.

C. Vision is sharpest when looking straight ahead

12

When is the break-off phenomenon MOST likely to occur?

A. when few visual stimuli are present.
B. flying low under a bright sun.
C. after recovering from hypoxia.
D. when the natural focal length of the eyes shortens to approximately 3-4m.

A. when few visual stimuli are present

13

In which part of the eye does the majority of light refraction occur?

A. lens.
B. iris.
C. cornea.
D. fovea.

C. cornea

14

Which of the following statements is TRUE of night vision?

A. It is a blind spot that occurs in the central vision at night.
B. Is enabled by the rods.
C. Mild hypoxia does not have any effect on it.
D. It is the same as cone vision.

B. Is enabled by the rods

15

Which of the following statements about the retina is TRUE?

A. It is sensitive to oxygen deprivation.
B. It covers 100% of the back of the eye.
C. It covers the front of the eye.
D. It is not sensitive to light.

A. It is sensitive to oxygen deprivation

16

What is the best way to overcome empty-field myopia?

A. Practice stretching the focal length regularly.
B. Close your eyes for a minute and look again.
C. Look to the side of the light instead of directly at it.
D. Revert to IFR.

A. Practice stretching the focal length regularly

17

In the fovea

A. is the highest concentration of cone and rod cells.
B. is the highest concentration of rod cells.
C. there are only cone cells.
D. is the location of the blind spot.

C. there are only cone cells

18

Under what circumstances may a pilot use eyeglasses or contact lenses whilst flying?

A. only while on autopilot.
B. only when he or she carries a backup pair.
C. at no time during the flight.
D. only on domestic flights.

B. only when he or she carries a backup pair

19

Which of the following statements is TRUE of the fovea?

A. It has the highest concentration of rod cells.
B. It is the location of the blind spot.
C. It has the highest concentration of cone and rod cells.
D. It contains cone cells, but not rod cells.

D. It contains cone cells, but not rod cells

20

A pilot reaches cruising altitude, activates the autopilot, and begins chatting with his co-pilot while scanning the clear blue sky. He is startled to see another airplane pass. Which of the following is MOST likely to explain why the pilot was surprised by the presence of this other aircraft?

A. empty-field myopia.
B. dark adaptation.
C. zeitgebers.
D. glare.

A. empty-field myopia

21

It is appropriate for a pilot to wear corrective lenses or glasses

A. when a backup pair is available for emergency use.
B. at no time during the flight.
C. during the day only.
D. while cruising.

A. when a backup pair is available for emergency use

22

If you are long-sighted, you have poor _____ vision, and you need _____ corrective lenses.

A. short; convex.
B. long; concave.
C. long; convex.
D. short; concave.

A. short; convex

23

What is empty-field myopia?

A. longsightedness.
B. a type of optical illusion.
C. an out-of-body experience.
D. shortsightedness.

D. shortsightedness

24

Cones are responsible for

A. night vision.
B. colour vision.
C. black and white vision.
D. scotopic vision.

B. colour vision

25

How do visual illusions affect pilots?

A. They generally cause disagreements about what is real.
B. They tend to make pilots fly better because the pilots become hypervigilant.
C. They can have the same effect on more than one person in the same cockpit.
D. They don’t.

C. They can have the same effect on more than one person in the same cockpit

26

What causes visual illusions?

A. corrective lenses.
B. a certain mind-set or preconceived notion.
C. the brain’s ability to make visual comparisons.
D. none of the above.

B. a certain mind-set or preconceived notion