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Flashcards in Visitor Management Deck (19):

Visitor Impact Management

1 - Pre-assessment - Data Base Review
2 - Review Management Objectives
3 - Selection of Key Impact Indicators
4 - Select Standards for Impact
5 - Comparison of Existing Conditions to Stated Objectives
6 - Identify Probable Cause(s) for Problems
7 - Management Strategies
8 - Implement Management Plan


ROS Opportunity Classes and Settings

1 - Primitive
2 - Semi-primitive, non- motorized
3 - Semi-primitive, motorized
4 - Roaded natural
5 - Rural
6 - Urban
1 – Access
2 – Remoteness
3 – Visual Characteristics
4 – Site Management
5 – Visitor management
6 – Social encounters
7 – Visitor impacts


Direct Management of Visitors

Attacks human behavior directly.
Forces behavior, usually through regulation


Indirect Management

Addresses decision making factors through information, persuasion, or site manipulation



First Line of Defense
Do's & Don'ts on park signs
Brochures (esp. in wilderness areas)


Limitations on Amount of Use

“Reason for” not necessary
Direct & active management not necessary
Should not be first management choice, direct conflict with recreation mandate.
Combine with education to use low impact techniques (avoid fragile areas; do not be destructive)
Leave No Trace
Spread use across all sites.
Type of use to be limited - day use, over night camping, both?


Limitations on Amount of Use Problems

Reducing use may not reduce impact to same degree.
Light/reducing use can keep severity of impact down.
Curvilinear relationship.
Majority of impact occurs with initial use.
On heavily impacted sites, all use may be curtailed.


Methods Limiting Use

Allocating permits
-Queuing (first come, first served)


Guidelines for Limiting Use

Accurate information on use, users, and impacts.
Reduce use only after less restrictive measures have failed.
Establish a system that tends to allocate permits to those people who place the highest value** on the permit (pricing, lottery, reservations). Monitor the use limitation program to make sure it is solving problems and is fair.


Dispersal - Concentrated or Diffuse

# 1 Problem – Concentrated use
"Local resource degradation and lack of solitude as a result of concentrated use.”
Solution – Reduce use on individual units (campsites, picnic areas, etc.)


Achieving Low Concentration

Regulatory (Direct)
-Quotas - Max capacity for campsites.
-Timing – daily, weekly, seasonal
Information & persuasion (Indirect)
-Where freedom and spontaneity are prized.
-Information more subtle
-Info. can be presented on signs, brochures
---ie. advertising the attractiveness of “off season” periods.


Types of Dispersal & Impact: 1

1) Dispersed over time (increasing off-season use)
Reduce crowding
Problem: may move use to a more sensitive season; plants & animals more sensitive to disturbance.


Types of Dispersal & Impact: 2

2) Spatial Dispersal; Camping arrangement


2) Spatial Dispersal; Camping arrangement

Increase distance between campsites.
Same # of campsites.
Little positive impact on soils, vegetation, water
Increase in wildlife disturbance.
Solitude – Positivevisitor satisfaction
More sites, same distance between parties
Rotate use among sites
Reduce impact in resistant environments
Equal number of users?(combination ofmethods)
Increase impact in popular areas with large parties, horse parties, etc.
Larger impact area
More roads, paths, etc


Concentration of Use

1) Reduce distances between parties
2) Concentrate on fewer sites
-Reduce impacted sites
-Reduce # of roads, trails, etc.
-Loss of solitude; neg impactto visitors
3) Concentration in Time
-Limitations on Length of Stay
-Seasonal Limitations on Use
4) Zoning
-Segregate by method, e.g. RV, tent, cabins, e.g., “No generator zone.”
5) Party Size Limits


Low Impact Education

Proper equipment
Keep party size small
Select resistant and appropriate campsites
Careful with fire
Avoid site engineering (holes, improvised fire rings, etc.)
Minimize site pollution
Properly dispose of human waste.
Keep lengths of stay to a night or two on the low use areas.
Cleanup very important.


Leave No Trace

Plan ahead & prepare
Travel & camp on durable surfaces
Dispose of waste properly
Leave what you find
Minimize campfire impacts
Respect wildlife.
Be considerate of other visitors


Campfire Management: Indirect Management

Modify user behavior
-Educate users on campfire impacts
Alternatives - use lightweight stoves, lanterns, alternative fuels


Campfire Management: Direct Management

Regulation of the user; removal of opportunities
Zoning - elevational, site, temporal (seasonal)
Communal fires
Total ban