Visual Development in Childhood Flashcards Preview

Week 41: Normal/Abnormal Growth and Development > Visual Development in Childhood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Visual Development in Childhood Deck (14)
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Growth of eyeballs

75% adult size at birth
Most growth in the 1st year
Full size at 13 years


When should you start measuring vision?

In infancy
By the time of first well baby check and definitely the first immunization at 2 months you should be convinced the baby can see
Formal exam at 3.5 years


3 tests to do during an eye exam in young kids

Red reflex
Corneal reflex
Cover test


Cover test

Testing for strabismus
Cover normal eye, the abnormal one will move back into a normal position
Seeing this shift means there is strabismus


What does the
1. Numerator
2. Denominator
mean in 20/20

1. What the patient sees
2. What the average person sees


What is
1. Myopia
2. Hyperopia
3. Astigmatism

1. Nearsighted
2. Farsighted
3. Different focal points because eye is shaped like a football


2 things to reduce the progression of myopia

Outdoor play
Lose dose atropine



Misaligned eyes
Loss of binocularity
Loss of depth (stereopsis)


Pseudoesotropia/ pseudoexotropia

Looks like eso/exotropia but when you do the corneal light reflex the light is straight so it is normal
Refer if in doubt


Infantile esotropia

Documented by 6 months
More common if there is a neuro history
Cross fixation
Alternate which eye is focused on an object
Can get nystagmus
Usually a larger deviation
Treat with early surgery


Accommodative esotropia

Presents between 6mo-7 years
Intermittent esotropia initially
Treat with glasses
Surgery if there is still residual deviation


Intermittent exotropia

< 5 years old
Is worse with fatigue, more in the distance, eyes close in the sun
Don't always need to treat
But treat with glasses, surgery, patching



"Lazy eye"
One eye has worse vision than the other
Causes: strabismus, anisometropia, ametropic, visual deprivation
Little functional disability
Treatment can be stressful
But there is a risk of vision loss in good eye and reduced stereo
Usually preventable or reversible with timely detection and intervention


Treatment of amblyopia

Make the amblyopic eye work harder
Fix any defect
Blurring with drops or lenses