Rods and cones synapse with ?
The optic nerve forms from fibers of the _______ which then enter to the cranial cavity by the _______.
enter by the optic foramen
Vitamin A is neccesary for _________, and deficit causes _______.
During situations with more light more neurotransmitter is secreted
TRUE OR FALSE
Less neurotransmitter is secreted when light is present.
Increases intraocular presion
progresive Visual loss
Open angle Glaucoma
Decreased aqueosus humor reabsorption.
Narrow Angle Glucoma
Schlemm canala block
Which nerve carries light sensory information to the pretectal area ?
Craneal nerve II or optic nerve
The nucleus in charge of light reflex is ?
Edinger westphal nucleus
Edinger westphal nucleus is responsible for ?
- Light reflex
- accomodation-convergence reflexes
Pupillary sphincter (iris),Ciliary muscle both are under ______ innervation, which use ______ receptors proucing miosis and ______ .
LIGHt in one eye--> CNII--> ______,from there passes to _________ which usign the CN ____ produces pupillary constriccion of ____ eyes.
TO the pretectal nucleus
Passes to Edingher westphal mucleus
Both eyes(direct-consensual reflex)
Pupils with no response to light
Marcus gunn pupils
light in affected eye= pupils do not constrict fully
Light in normal eye=pupils constrict fully
Again affected eye= dilatation
CN II affected (ME)
Patient in emergency with fixed and dilatated pupils
"Down and out eyes"
Cells for :
Night vision, motion
The CN II is formed by axons of ?
The ganglion layer of the retina
In the temporal lobe course meyers loop which carries
Information of the lower retina
A lesion in the optic chiasm produces ?
Bitemporal heteronymus hemianopia
HOw we can difference a lesion of the optic tract form a lesion of the visual cortex ?
Both produce homonymus hemianopia
- Cortex: light reflex is intact, and usually macula is spared (infarct)
A pituitary adenoma compress fiber from_______ and starts as: _____
A craneopharyngioma compress fibers from_____ and starts as________
Pituitaryadenoma compress fiber from below, starts as superior cudrantanopia
Craneopharyngioma compess fibers from above , starts as inferior quadrantanopia.
Lesion that pass the chiasm are characterized by :