Flashcards in vital signs Deck (32):
why are vital signs important
Vital signs are important because they are indicators of the patients health status, they indicate effectiveness of circulatory, respiratory, neural, and endocrine body functions. They are used to determine a patients usual state of health and help identify the patients problem.
what are the guidelines for measuring vital signs
usual range of patient
stable environment when taking them
adequate equpiment and they are measuring correctly
always communicate about changes in the vital signs and letting them know of significant findings
why is it important to know both the range of a vital sign and your clients base line
The patients baseline can differ from the range of adequate vital signs so it is important to know their baseline because you can detect a change in condition over time. Its good to know the average range of vital signs because then you will know if something is wrong if they are far off.
what are the normal ranges of temperature?
what is the average temperature range
what is the normal ranges or respirations
12-20 breaths/ min deep and regular
what is the normal range for pulse
60-100 beats/min strong and regular
what is the normal BP
120/80 mm Hg
how to you convert Fahrenheit to celsius
C=(F-32) X 5/9
how do you convert Celsius to Fahrenheit
(9/5 X C) +32
Define body temperature
Body temperate is the difference between the amount of heat produced by body processes and the amount lose to the external environment
what are some possible causes of alterations in body temperature
Temperature of the deep tissues
what sites are utilized for obtaining a patients temperature
Rectal, oral, axial, temporal, tympanic, esophageal, pulmonary artery, or urinary bladder
The pulse is the palpable bounding of blood flow in a peripheral artery.
what are the 4 characteristics to asses when taking a pulse
rate, rhythm, strength and equality
where is radial pulse located
thumb side of arm
where is brachial pulse located
groove between biceps and triceps muscle
where is your apical pulse located
4th to 5th intercostal space at left midclavicular line
where is your femoral pulse located
below inguinal ligament
where is your popliteal pulse located
where is posterior tibial pulse located
inner side of ankle
where is doornails pedis pulse located
top of foot
Respiration is the mechanism the body uses to exchange gases between the atmosphere and the blood and the blood and the cells. Respiration involves perfusion, ventilation and diffusion
what constitutes one respiratory cycle
the process of breathing in and out
inhalation + exhalation = 1 respiratory cycle
What 3 characteristics should you assess when measuring respirations?
rate, pattern and depth along with SpO2 assesses ventilation, diffusion and perfusion
what is blood pressure
blood pressure is the force exerted on the walls of an artery by the pulsing blood under pressure from the heart.
what causes blood pressure
pressure changes cause it
what is the difference between systolic and diastolic
systolic is the peak of maximum pressure when ejection occurs and diastolic is the minimal pressure exerted against the partial walls at all times
What factors combine to form a blood pressure reading and how are they affected?
Cardiac output: rapid increase in HR decreases the filling time of the heart
peripheral resistance: as resistance rises, arterial BP rises
blood volume: an increase in blood volume exerts more pressure of artery walls
viscosity: affects the ease with which blood flows through small vessels
elasticity: as pressure within the arteries increases the diameter of the vessel increases
What factors can influence BP?
Age, stress, ethnicity, gender, daily variation, medications, activity, weight, and smoking
What is orthostatic hypotension?
Orthostatic hypotension occurs when a normotensive person develops symptoms and a drop in systolic pressure by at least 20mm Hg or a drop in diastolic pressure by atlas 10 mm Hg within 3 minutes of rising to an upright position.