Vitamin: Names & Deficiencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamin: Names & Deficiencies Deck (52):
1

What is another name for B1?

Thiamine

2

What is another name for B2?

Riboflavin

3

What is another name for B3?

Niacin

4

What is another name for B5?

Panthothenic acid

5

What is another name for B6?

Pyridoxine

6

What is another name for B7?

Biotin

7

What is another name for B9?

Folate

8

What is another name for B12?

Cobalamin

9

What is another name for Thiamine?

Vitamin B1

10

What is another name for riboflavin?

Vitamin B2

11

What is another name for Niacin?

Vitamin B3

12

What is another name for Panthothenic acid?

Vitamin B5

13

What is another name for Pyridoxine?

Vitamin B6

14

What is another name for biotin?

Vitamin B7

15

What is another name for folate?

Vitamin B9

16

What is another name for Cobalamin?

Vitamin B12 (the LARGEST vitamin by MW (molecular weight))

17

What is the active form of thiamine?

TPP

18

What is the active form of riboflavin?

FAD, FMN

19

What is the active form of niacin?

NAD+

20

What is the active form of pantothenic acid?

CoA

21

What is the active form of pyridoxine?

PLP (According to lecture, pyridoxine is THE vitamin for amino acid metabolism.)

22

What is the active form of folate?

THF

23

What is the active form of Vitamin C?

Ascorbic acid

24

What is the active form of Vitamin A?

Retinol

25

What is the active form of Vitamin D?

1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (activated first in the liver, then in the kidney)

26

What are signs of B1 (thiamine) deficiency?

Dry beri beri (nerves), wet beri beri (heart), Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (brain)

27

What are signs of B2 (riboflavin) deficiency?

Two C's: Cheilosis & corneal vascularization;
Others: magenta tongue, angular stomatitis, seborrhea

28

What are signs of B3 (niacin) deficiency?

Pellagara: dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea ("Three D's of niacin deficiency", the fourth one is death); pigmented rash in sun-exposed areas, memory loss, apathy

29

What are signs of B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency?

Seborrhea, glossitis, convulsions, neuropathy, depression, confusion, microcytic anemia

30

What are signs of B9 (folate) deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia, atrophic glossitis, depression, headache, increased homocysteine levels

31

What are signs of B12 (cobalamin) deficiency?

Megaloblastic anemia, neuro symptoms (abnl gait, dementia, loss of vibratory/position sense), impotence, loss of bladder/bowel control, increased homocysteine, increased methylmalonic acid

32

What are signs of Vitamin C deficiency?

Scurvy: petechia, ecchymosis, coiled hair, inflamed/bleeding gums, joint effusion, saying "yarr" frequently.

33

What are signs of Vitamin A deficiency?

Night blindness, squamous metaplasia, bitot spots (keratin buildup in the conjunctiva), keratomalacia

34

What are signs of Vitamin D deficiency?

Rickets, osteomalacia, rachitic rosary (rib bumps)

35

What are signs of Vitamin K deficiency?

Elevated PT (important in Koagulation). Decreased levels seen in liver disease, newborns, and w/ antibiotic use.

36

What are signs of Zinc deficiency?

Rash, anorexia, diarrhea

37

What are signs of Iron deficiency?

Hypochromic microcytic anemia

38

What are signs of Iodine deficiency?

goiter, hypothyroidism

39

What are signs of Copper deficiency?

aka "swayback". Weakness (myelopathy), periph neuropathy, optical neuropathy, ring sideroblasts (funky blood results, check out Wikipedia or other, more reputable sources)

40

What are signs of Fluoride deficiency?

Dental caries

41

What are signs of Selenium deficiency?

When combined w/ Coxsackie infection: Keshan dz (congestive cardiomyopathy)

42

What causes Vitamin D deficiency?

Aging, lack of sunlight, fat malabsorption, darker-pigmented skin (us pale kids can get the day's worth of Vitamin D synthesized w/ 15 mins of sun exposure. Fun fact.)

43

What causes Vitamin A deficiency?

Fat malabsorption, infection, EtOH, measles, protein-energy malnutrition (PEM).

Too much Vitamin A is TOXIC! (From lecture)

44

What causes thiamine (B1) deficiency?

EtOH, chronic diuretic use, hyperemesis (pregnancy, bulimia)

45

What causes folate (B9) deficiency?

EtOH, methotrexate, pregnancy

46

What causes riboflavin (B2) deficiency?

Other vitamin B deficiencies

47

What causes niacin (B3) deficiency?

EtOH, B6/B2 deficiency, tryptophan deficiency

48

What causes pyridoxine (B6) deficiency?

EtOH, isoniazid (TB trx)

49

What causes cobalamin (B12) deficiency?

Pernicious anemia, chronic vegetarian diet, surgery, acid-reducing drugs, terminal ileal disease (or resection).

50

What causes Vitamin C deficiency?

Smoking, EtOH, diet, dialysis, age

51

What are signs of B7 (biotin) deficiency?

Occur rarely, if ever.

Infants: hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, apathy, dermatitis, alopecia.

Adults: Brittle nails, depression, paresthesias, hallucinations, anorexia, nausea

52

What causes biotin (B7) deficiency?

Consuming too many raw eggs. Avidin binds to biotin and makes it unusable.

(Think: I am avid(in) about my egg consumption, but now I have B7 deficiency!)