Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (123):
What 2 categories are vitamins classified into
Water soluble and fat soluble
Vitamins are organic
What does that mean?
They contain the element carbon and are found in plant and animal substances in small amounts
Most vitamins cannot be made in body
What are the exceptions?
Some B vitamins can be made by intestinal bacteria
Vitamin K is commonly made in body in intestines
Are vitamins a source of energy?
No, we obtain energy from macronutrients but vitamins help convert macronutrients to more bioavailable or metabolically useful forms
What do vitamins function principally as?
Coenzymes for a variety of metabolic reactions and biochemical mechanisms within our many bodily functions
Enzymes are catalysts
What does that mean?
They speed up specific chemical reactions that would proceed very slowly without vitamins
Are vitamins part of our body tissues?
No, but they are helpers in metabolism (they are stored there)
Can we live on vitamins?
We need food that provides energy and help forms the actual tissues of our body
What is needed to absorb vitamins supplements that we take?
Food and certain minerals
What are vitamins essential for?
Growth, vitality and health
What are vitamins helpful in?
Digestion, elimination, and resistance to disease
What can depletion and deficiencies lead to?
Specific nutritional disorders and general health problems according to what vitamin is lacking
What are vitamins further categorized by?
Letters, groups, and individual chemical names
What do water soluble vitamins mainly include?
Many B vitamins and vitamin C
What tends to happen to water soluble vitamins when they are cooked?
Vitamins are usually lost because they are sensitive to heat
What are water soluble vitamins sensitive to?
Air, light and passage of time
(Therefore vitamins can also be lost in raw foods)
Are water soluble vitamins commonly found in vegetable or animal foods?
Are water soluble vitamins stored in body?
Not to large degree so needed in diet
Which type of vitamin is more potentially toxic?
Fat soluble ones
Because water soluble ones are usually consumed through diet so you can control how much you are taking
What do water soluble vitamins act in body as?
Act as coenzymes in combination with an inactive protein to make an active enzyme
What are types of fat soluble vitamins?
A, D, E and K
Where are far soluble vitamins found?
Found in lipid component in vegetable and animal source foods
What foods contain vitamin E
Grains, seeds and nuts
Where can fat soluble vitamins be stored?
In body tissues so we can function for longer periods of time without obtaining them from diet than we can without the water soluble ones
Why are fat soluble vitamins more easily toxic?
They are stored in our bodies longer
Which fat soluble vitamin is less likely to be toxic?
Vitamin E because it is used readily by body as antioxidant to help protect against harmful by-products of metabolism and against outside pollutants
What does vitamin A do?
Adds cellular protection as well as resistance to infection
What does vitamin D do?
AIDS in absorption of calcium from the guy and thus is important in skeletal health
What does vitamin K do?
Helps make factors crucial to blood clotting to prevent bleeding?
what are 4 D's of Pellagra?
diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
which vitamin causes pellagra?
which vitamin causes scurvy?
which vitamin causes rickets?
which vitamin causes Beri Beri?
which vitamin causes pernicious anemia?
which vitamin is anti-coagulant? (blood thinner)
which vitamin is coagulant?
which are the anti-inflammatory vitamins?
D and E
which vitamins are antioxidants?
A, C, E
which vitamin prevents defects like Spina Bifida and birth deformities in pregnancy?
B9- folic acid
which vitamins are in intestinal bacteria?
a lot of the B vitamins
which form of vitamin is heat stable and not destroyed in cooking process?
which form of vitamin is sensitive to air, light and time?
which form of vitamin is high in plant foods?
which form of vitamin mainly functions as co-enzymes to help enzymes in our body function?
which form of vitamin requires fat for absorption?
which form of vitamin can have toxic load because it is stored in body form longer periods of time?
which form of vitamin is denatured by cooking process?
which form of vitamin is stored readily i liver and adipose tissue which is more potential for toxicity?
which form of vitamin is not stored readily in diet so needed to get regularly from diet?
which form of vitamin is highest in animal sources and also in lipid component of plants?
which form of vitamin has less potential for toxicity?
are vitamins building blocks of our body?
no, they assist in formation
what are vitamins essential for?
growth, vitality, health
digestion, elimination, and resistance to disease
what are 4 types of reference values?
estimated average requirement (EAR)
recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
adequate intake (AI)
tolerable upper intake level (UL)
what are the 2 types of Vitamin A?
preformed vitamin A or retinol and provitamin A (alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene
where does retinol play an important role?
where is vitamin A absorbed?
what reduces absorption of vitamin A?
alcohol use, vitamin E deficiency, cortisone medication, excessive iron intake or use of mineral oil, and exercise
where is vitamin A stored?
what mineral is needed to help release stores of vitamin A for use?
what are sources of retinol?
main animal source vitamin A
liver and fish oil
egg yolks, milk products
what are sources of provitamin A?
yellow and orange coloured fruits and vegetables
leafy green vegetables
what are functions of vitamin A?
eyesight, growth and tissue healing, healthy skin, antioxidation, lowering cancer risk and supporting immune function, regulating genetic processes
what are clinical uses of vitamin A?
infections, eye problems, skin problems, cancer prevention, pollution protection
what are symptoms of vitamin A deficiency?
night blindness, impaired vision, corneal ulcers, decrease protection against infectious agents and the internal process of carcinogenesis, increased risk of many cancers, dry bumpy skin may occur,
what are symptoms of vitamin A toxicity?
highly unlikely to get toxicity from diet alone
discolouring of skin when intake of yellow/orange vegetables is too high
retinol-- slight swelling of brain, headaches, itchy, flaky or dry skin, anorexia, liver enlargement, menstrual problems, bone abnormalities, stunted growth, dry or beeding lips
what is vitamin D known as?
sunshine vitamin and calcidiol
where is vitamin D absorbed?
through intestinal walls with other fats with the aid of bile
where is vitamin D stored?
mostly liver and also skin, brain, spleen and bones
what are sources of vitamin D?
fish liver oil, cod liver oil, egg yolks, butter and liver, oily fish, milk and breakfast cereals fortified with vitamin D, mushrooms, dark leafy greens
what are functions of vitamin D?
helps regulate calcium metabolism
need to finish***
What is a common source to make B vitamin supplements?
B vitamins are catalytic spark plugs in body, what do they do?
Function as coenzymes to catalyze biochemical reactions
(Converting carbs to glucose)
(Important in fat and protein/amino acid metabolism)
What are B vitamins most commonly used for?
Stress, fatigue, anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, hyperactivity, skin problems
What is vitamin B5 known as?
Anti stress vitamin
What helps in the absorption of B12?
What is one of the most difficult vitamins to acquire through diet?
What 3 B vitamins are thought of together due to their similar functions?
Biotin, choline and inositol
What can folic acid deficiencies result in ?
Excessive demands by tissues
What does DRI stand for?
Dietary reference intake?
What does EAR stand for?
Estimated average requirement
What does RDA stand for?
Recommended dietary allowance
What does AI stand for?
What does tolerable upper intake level stand for?
What is risk to individuals in a EAR?
What is risk to individuals in RDA?
There are minimums NOT optimism for use
What are natural vitamins?
Extracted exclusively from food source and contain mix of nutrients found in nature
What does synthetic vitamins mean?
Made chemically in lab and contain binders and fillers
What does chelated vitamins mean?
Minerals are bound to another molecule to enhance absorption from digestive tract
Time released vitamins
Digest and absorb slower
What is orthomolecular medicine ?
Higher levels of vitamins and minerals than the RDA recommends
What do tablets contain?
Fillers, binders, coatings
What are capsules made from?
Beef, pork or vegetable gelatin
What type of people are powdered vitamins helpful for?
Trouble swallowing pills, weak digestion or who need high levels of particular nutrients
Who commonly uses liquid vitamins?
Infants or children (same advantage as powders for adults)
Why use multivitamin supplements?
Grown foods lower in nutrients due to soil erosion
Processed food loses nutrients
Daily intakes may be too low in food
People might have restriction on certain foods so might have to take supplement erode is more polluted causing nutrient stress on body
Dosing nutrients has quicker affect
What are the 3 types of vitamin K?
K1 - food source
K2 - produced by intestinal bacteria (best kind)
K3 - synthetic form
Which B vitamin plays a crucial role in energy production and glucose metabolism
What are main functions of B2?
aids in cell respiration and and contributed to good vision and healthy skin, hair and nails
What amino acid can B3 be made from?
What 2 coenzymes is niacin apart of?
NAD and NADP (important in energy metabolism)
Which B vitamin is important for women's health and involved in synthesis of DNA/RNA and their functions?
Which vitamin is associated with raw eggs?
Which vitamin is part of PABAs structure?
What is B12 also known as?
Which is one of the most difficult vitamins to acquire through diet and metabolize ?
What does B12 help in?
Stimulates growth, increases appetite of children, boosts energy and needed for formation of red blood cells
Is B12 mostly found in animal or vegetable?
Which vitamin is referred to as the memory vitamin?