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fundamentals of nutrition > Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vitamins Deck (123):
1

Vitamins are organic
What does that mean?

They contain the element carbon and are found in plant and animal substances in small amounts

2

Most vitamins cannot be made in body
What are the exceptions?

Some B vitamins can be made by intestinal bacteria
Vitamin K is commonly made in body in intestines

3

Are vitamins a source of energy?

No, we obtain energy from macronutrients but vitamins help convert macronutrients to more bioavailable or metabolically useful forms

4

What do vitamins function principally as?

Coenzymes for a variety of metabolic reactions and biochemical mechanisms within our many bodily functions

5

Enzymes are catalysts
What does that mean?

They speed up specific chemical reactions that would proceed very slowly without vitamins

6

Are vitamins part of our body tissues?

No, but they are helpers in metabolism (they are stored there)

7

Can we live on vitamins?

No,
We need food that provides energy and help forms the actual tissues of our body

8

What is needed to absorb vitamins supplements that we take?

Food and certain minerals

9

What are vitamins essential for?

Growth, vitality and health

10

What are vitamins helpful in?

Digestion, elimination, and resistance to disease

11

What can depletion and deficiencies lead to?

Specific nutritional disorders and general health problems according to what vitamin is lacking

12

What 2 categories are vitamins classified into

Water soluble and fat soluble

13

What are vitamins further categorized by?

Letters, groups, and individual chemical names

14

What do water soluble vitamins mainly include?

Many B vitamins and vitamin C

15

What tends to happen to water soluble vitamins when they are cooked?

Vitamins are usually lost because they are sensitive to heat

16

What are water soluble vitamins sensitive to?

Air, light and passage of time
(Therefore vitamins can also be lost in raw foods)

17

Are water soluble vitamins commonly found in vegetable or animal foods?

Vegetable

18

Are water soluble vitamins stored in body?

Not to large degree so needed in diet

19

Which type of vitamin is more potentially toxic?

Fat soluble ones
Because water soluble ones are usually consumed through diet so you can control how much you are taking

20

What do water soluble vitamins act in body as?

Act as coenzymes in combination with an inactive protein to make an active enzyme

21

What are types of fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E and K

22

Where are far soluble vitamins found?

Found in lipid component in vegetable and animal source foods

23

What foods contain vitamin E

Grains, seeds and nuts

24

Where can fat soluble vitamins be stored?

In body tissues so we can function for longer periods of time without obtaining them from diet than we can without the water soluble ones

25

Why are fat soluble vitamins more easily toxic?

They are stored in our bodies longer

26

Which fat soluble vitamin is less likely to be toxic?

Vitamin E because it is used readily by body as antioxidant to help protect against harmful by-products of metabolism and against outside pollutants

27

What does vitamin A do?

Adds cellular protection as well as resistance to infection

28

What does vitamin D do?

AIDS in absorption of calcium from the guy and thus is important in skeletal health

29

What does vitamin K do?

Helps make factors crucial to blood clotting to prevent bleeding?

30

what are 4 D's of Pellagra?

diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death

31

which vitamin causes pellagra?

B3- Niacin

32

which vitamin causes scurvy?

Vitamin C

33

which vitamin causes rickets?

Vitamin D

34

which vitamin causes Beri Beri?

B1- Thiamin

35

which vitamin causes pernicious anemia?

B12- Cobalamin

36

which vitamin is anti-coagulant? (blood thinner)

vitamin E

37

which vitamin is coagulant?

vitamin K

38

which are the anti-inflammatory vitamins?

D and E

39

which vitamins are antioxidants?

A, C, E

40

which vitamin prevents defects like Spina Bifida and birth deformities in pregnancy?

B9- folic acid

41

which vitamins are in intestinal bacteria?

a lot of the B vitamins

42

which form of vitamin is heat stable and not destroyed in cooking process?

fat soluble

43

which form of vitamin is sensitive to air, light and time?

water soluble

44

which form of vitamin is high in plant foods?

water soluble

45

which form of vitamin mainly functions as co-enzymes to help enzymes in our body function?

water solube

46

which form of vitamin requires fat for absorption?

fat solube

47

which form of vitamin can have toxic load because it is stored in body form longer periods of time?

fat soluble

48

which form of vitamin is denatured by cooking process?

water soluble

49

which form of vitamin is stored readily i liver and adipose tissue which is more potential for toxicity?

fat soluble

50

which form of vitamin is not stored readily in diet so needed to get regularly from diet?

water soluble

51

which form of vitamin is highest in animal sources and also in lipid component of plants?

fat soluble

52

which form of vitamin has less potential for toxicity?

water soluble

53

are vitamins building blocks of our body?

no, they assist in formation

54

what are vitamins essential for?

growth, vitality, health
digestion, elimination, and resistance to disease

55

what are 4 types of reference values?

estimated average requirement (EAR)
recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
adequate intake (AI)
tolerable upper intake level (UL)

56

B1

Thiamin

57

B2

Riboflavin

58

B3

Niacin

59

B5

Pantothenic Acid

60

B6

Pyridoxine

61

B7

Biotin

62

B12

Cobalamin

63

B9

Folic Acid

64

B13

Orotic Acid

65

B15

Pangamic Acid

66

B17

Laetrile

67

what are the 2 types of Vitamin A?

preformed vitamin A or retinol and provitamin A (alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene

68

where does retinol play an important role?

the eye

69

where is vitamin A absorbed?

small intestines

70

what reduces absorption of vitamin A?

alcohol use, vitamin E deficiency, cortisone medication, excessive iron intake or use of mineral oil, and exercise

71

where is vitamin A stored?

mostly liver

72

what mineral is needed to help release stores of vitamin A for use?

zinc

73

what are sources of retinol?

main animal source vitamin A
liver and fish oil
egg yolks, milk products

74

what are sources of provitamin A?

yellow and orange coloured fruits and vegetables
leafy green vegetables

75

what are functions of vitamin A?

eyesight, growth and tissue healing, healthy skin, antioxidation, lowering cancer risk and supporting immune function, regulating genetic processes

76

what are clinical uses of vitamin A?

infections, eye problems, skin problems, cancer prevention, pollution protection

77

what are symptoms of vitamin A deficiency?

night blindness, impaired vision, corneal ulcers, decrease protection against infectious agents and the internal process of carcinogenesis, increased risk of many cancers, dry bumpy skin may occur,

78

what are symptoms of vitamin A toxicity?

highly unlikely to get toxicity from diet alone
discolouring of skin when intake of yellow/orange vegetables is too high
retinol-- slight swelling of brain, headaches, itchy, flaky or dry skin, anorexia, liver enlargement, menstrual problems, bone abnormalities, stunted growth, dry or beeding lips

79

what is vitamin D known as?

sunshine vitamin and calcidiol

80

where is vitamin D absorbed?

through intestinal walls with other fats with the aid of bile

81

where is vitamin D stored?

mostly liver and also skin, brain, spleen and bones

82

what are sources of vitamin D?

fish liver oil, cod liver oil, egg yolks, butter and liver, oily fish, milk and breakfast cereals fortified with vitamin D, mushrooms, dark leafy greens

83

what are functions of vitamin D?

helps regulate calcium metabolism
need to finish***

84

What is a common source to make B vitamin supplements?

Yeast

85

B vitamins are catalytic spark plugs in body, what do they do?

Function as coenzymes to catalyze biochemical reactions
(Converting carbs to glucose)
(Important in fat and protein/amino acid metabolism)

86

What are B vitamins most commonly used for?

Stress, fatigue, anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, hyperactivity, skin problems

87

What is vitamin B5 known as?

Anti stress vitamin

88

What helps in the absorption of B12?

Hydrochloric acid

89

What is one of the most difficult vitamins to acquire through diet?

B12

90

What 3 B vitamins are thought of together due to their similar functions?

Biotin, choline and inositol

91

What can folic acid deficiencies result in ?

Inadequate nutrition
Poor absorption
Metabolic problems
Excessive demands by tissues

92

What does DRI stand for?

Dietary reference intake?

93

What does EAR stand for?

Estimated average requirement

94

What does RDA stand for?

Recommended dietary allowance

95

What does AI stand for?

Adequate intake?

96

What does tolerable upper intake level stand for?

UL

97

What is risk to individuals in a EAR?

50%

98

What is risk to individuals in RDA?

2-3%
There are minimums NOT optimism for use

99

What are natural vitamins?

Extracted exclusively from food source and contain mix of nutrients found in nature

100

What does synthetic vitamins mean?

Made chemically in lab and contain binders and fillers

101

What does chelated vitamins mean?

Minerals are bound to another molecule to enhance absorption from digestive tract

102

Time released vitamins

Digest and absorb slower

103

What is orthomolecular medicine ?

Higher levels of vitamins and minerals than the RDA recommends

104

What do tablets contain?

Fillers, binders, coatings

105

What are capsules made from?

Beef, pork or vegetable gelatin

106

What type of people are powdered vitamins helpful for?

Trouble swallowing pills, weak digestion or who need high levels of particular nutrients

107

Who commonly uses liquid vitamins?

Infants or children (same advantage as powders for adults)

108

Why use multivitamin supplements?

Grown foods lower in nutrients due to soil erosion
Processed food loses nutrients
Daily intakes may be too low in food
People might have restriction on certain foods so might have to take supplement erode is more polluted causing nutrient stress on body
Dosing nutrients has quicker affect

109

What are the 3 types of vitamin K?

K1 - food source
K2 - produced by intestinal bacteria (best kind)
K3 - synthetic form

110

Which B vitamin plays a crucial role in energy production and glucose metabolism

B1

111

What are main functions of B2?

aids in cell respiration and and contributed to good vision and healthy skin, hair and nails

112

What amino acid can B3 be made from?

Tryptophan

113

What 2 coenzymes is niacin apart of?

NAD and NADP (important in energy metabolism)

114

Which B vitamin is important for women's health and involved in synthesis of DNA/RNA and their functions?

B6

115

Which vitamin is associated with raw eggs?

B7

116

Which vitamin is part of PABAs structure?

B9

117

What is B12 also known as?

Red vitamin

118

Which is one of the most difficult vitamins to acquire through diet and metabolize ?

B12

119

What does B12 help in?

Stimulates growth, increases appetite of children, boosts energy and needed for formation of red blood cells

120

Is B12 mostly found in animal or vegetable?

Animal protein

121

Which vitamin is referred to as the memory vitamin?

Choline

122

Vitamin B

Bioflavonoids

123

What are functions of PABA?

Important to skin (skin cancer), hair pigment, intestinal bacteria