Vitamins & Minerals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins & Minerals Deck (36):
1

K+ source

unprocessed foods (meats, veggies, fruit, nuts, legumes)
3.5-5 mEq/L

2

Na+ source

animal origins, dietary salt
135-145 mEq/L

3

Cl- source

dietary salt (ingested as NaCL)
95-105mEq/L

4

Ca2+ source

milk and diary, soybeans, green veggies
8.4-10.2 mEq/L

5

PO34- source

dairy, wheat, beans, walnuts
3-4.5 mEq/L

6

Mg2+ source

meat, fish, veggies, nuts, grains
1.7-2.2 mEq/L

7

Thiamine (B1) deficiency

from: alcoholism/affects absorption
Wernicke's: ataxia, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia
Korsakoff's: psychosis, confabulation
Dry beriberi: muscle wasting, partial paralysis
Wet beriberi: cardiac failure, peripheral edema

8

Riboflavin (B2) deficiency

from: diet deficiency, malabsorption
corneal neovascularization
cheilosis/stomatitis
magenta-colored tongue

9

Niacin (B3) deficiency

Hartnup disease (impaired AA absorption --> tryptophan deficiency --> niacin deficiency

malnutrition --> Pellegra: diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, death (4Ds)

10

Panthothenic Acid (B5) deficiency

extreme starvation
dermatitis
numbness
parestesia
muscle cramps
enteritis
alopecia
adrenal insufficiency
hypoglycemia

11

Pyridoxine (B6) deficiency

from: isoniazid therapy
sideroblastic anemia (iron can't be converted to heme)
cheilosis/stomatitis
intertrigo
convulsions

12

Biotin (B7) deficiency

from: raw eggs (contain biotin-binding ptn)
alopecia
rashes, seborrheic dermatitis
bowel inflammation
muscle pain

13

Folic Acid (B9) deficiency

from: alcohol, pregnancy, drug side effect
macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
cardiovascular disease
DVT
thromboembolism
stroke

14

Cobalamin (B12) deficiency

from: pernicious anemia, pancreatitis, vegetarian diet, ileum resection
megaloblastic anemia
neuropathies
homocysteinemia (CV disease, DVT, stroke)

15

Ascorbate (Vit C) deficiency

from: lack of citrus and leafy veggies
poor wound healing, easy bruising
hemorrhaging, bleeding gums, anemia
increased bleeding time
painful glossitis

16

Vitamin A functions

vision (retinal)
epithelial maintenance

17

Vitamin A deficiency

from: malnutrition, fat malabsorption, liver cirrhosis
night blindness
metaplasia of corneal epithelium
frequent infections
follicular hyperkeratosis

18

Vitamin D functions

GI: synthesis of Ca2+ binding ptns, inc. phosphate absorption
Kidneys: reabsorption of Ca2+, secretion of phosphate
Bone: osteoclast activation, bone reabsorption

19

Vitamin D deficiency

rickets
- delayed growth
- pain in spine, pelvis, and legs
- muscle weakness
- bowed legs
- thickened wrists and ankles
- breastbone projection

20

cofactors

noncovalent interaction w/ enzyme, stabilize active site, metal ions, trace elements

21

coenzymes

cosubstrate or prosthetic group
organic molecules, vitamins
NAD+, heme

22

Mg+ as a cofactor

cytochrome c oxidase

23

Fe as a cofactor

heme proteins, required to bind to oxygen

24

Mg as a cofactor

ATPases, kinases

25

Se a a cofactor

glutathione peroxidase (antioxidant)

26

Zn as a cofactor

superoxide dismutase (antioxidant), carbonic anhydrase

27

glycerophospholipids

phosphatidyl serine
phosphatidyl choline
phosphatidyl inositol

28

spingolipids

phosphoryl choline
ceramide

29

extracellular lipids

phosphatidylcholine
spingomyelin
glycolipids

30

intracellular lipids

phosphatidylinositol
phosphatidylserine (marker for apoptosis if extracellular)
phosphatidylethanolamine

31

food pyramid ratios

10-15% cals from proteins
25-35% from fat
rest from carbs

32

monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

33

disaccharides

sucrose = glucose + fructose
lactose = glucose + galactose
maltose = glucose + glucose

34

steatorrhea

excess fat in stool
malabsorption of fat
concern for lipid soluble vitamin deficiency

35

glucose transporter types
FACILITATED DIFFUSION

GLUT1 - brain, RBCs (high affinity)
GLUT2- liver (low affinity)
GLUT3- neurons (high affinity)
GLUT4- skeletal muscle, heart, adipose tissue (regulated by insulin)
GLUT5- fructose

36

SGLT1 transports:

glucose, galactose