What are the 4 disease categories for vines?
Name and describe 7 fungal diseases.
Fungal diseases manifest as mildew or mold and are associated with warm/damp climates. They usually attack the roots or canopy.
1. Powdery Mildew (Oidium)
2. Downy Mildew (Peronospera)
3. Eutypa Dieback (Dead Arm)
4. Esca (Black Measels)
5. Black Rot
6. Bunch Rot
What is Powdery Mildew (Oidium) and how is it controlled?
- Native to North America
- Affects all green parts of the pant with duty white mildew
- Prefers densely shaded canopies
- Inhibits bunch development and ripening
- Controlled by sulfur & other fungicides
What is Downy Mildew (Peronospera) and how it is controlled?
- Native to North America
- Attacks green part of the vines and causes the leaves to drop off, therefore limiting the vine's ability to photosynthesize
- Looks like an oil spot on the leaves; as it germinates, a white/cottony growth develops on the leaf underside - It survives the winter on fallen leaves and reaches vines again through rain spatter in Spring
- Controlled by Bordeaux Mixture (Copper Sulfate, Lime, Water)
What is Eutypa Dieback (Dead Arm)? Does it affect quality or quantity? Where does it thrive?
- Eutypa lata spores enter vine through pruning wounds (carried by rain)
- Common in Mediterranean climes
- Causes stunted shoot growth and eventually an infected cane may die
- Affects yield (decreased), but does NOT affect quality
What is Esca (Black Measels) and how does it affect the vine? Where does it thrive?
- Lives in warmer climates; no known control or cure
- Result of complex fungi; it's not a single organism
- Spread by rainfall, wind, or on pruning shears
- On a young vine, it weakens growth and affects berry development & discolors leaves
- On a mature vine, it affects the wood by causing it to rot from the inside out
What is Black Rot? Does it affect quality or quantity?
- Affects quantity; reduces yields
- Native to North America
- Originates as black spots on shoots, leaves and berries
- Controlled by fungicide
What is Bunch Rot? Does it affect quantity or quality?
- Affect quantity and may affect quality
- reduces crop yields and may pass along moldy flavors in the wine
- Caused by a number of fungi species
What is Botrytis Bunch Rot? What are its other names?
- Aka grey rot, noble rot
- Breaks down skins of berries to allow other bacteria and yeasts to rot the grapes
Name 3 Bacterial diseases.
- Pierce's Disease
- Crown Gall (Black Knot)
- Bacterial Blight
Describe Pierce's Disease - how it's transmitted, what happens to the vine, is there a cure?
- No cure
- Transmitted by the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter
- Renders the vine incapable of producing chlorophyll and kills it within 1-5 years
Describe Crown Gall (Black Knot) - where it thrives, how it's spread.
- Spread through propagation of bacteria-infected budwood.
- Thrives in cooler climates
- The knots are vine tumors that develop on the trunk, strangling the vine, and withering or killing portions above the knot.
What is Bacterial Blight? How is it spread and how can it be controlled?
- Controlled with hot water treatments and copper sprays
- Spread by rain or pruning
- Kills young shoots
Name 2 Viral diseases.
- Leafroll Virus
- Fanleaf Degeneration
Describe what causes Leafroll Virus, how to detect is and how it affects the vine.
- Caused by complex of at least 9 viruses
- Causes downward curling of red and yellow leaves
- Reduces yields, delays ripening
- Spread through propagation of infected vines or the mealybug
- No cure, but it will not kill the vine
Describe Fanleaf Degeneration, how it is spread and how it affects the vine.
- It's a "nepovirus" spread by nematodes that feed on infected vines
- Reduces yeilds
- Affected vines must be removed -- it deforms shoot growth, makes poor fruit set, and seedless berries. Yellow bands around veins
What is the 1 Phytoplasma disease? Where did it first appear and how is it spread?
Flavescense Dorée. First appeared in Armagnac 1949. - Spread by Leafhoppers (insect) and propagation of vines
- Delays budbreak, slows shoot growth, causes bunches to fall of vine and berries to shrivel. It also discolors leaves and causes pustules and cracks, and it may kill young vines
- No cure, but insecticide can be used to control the Leafhopper
Describe the difference between macroclimate, mesoclimate and microclimate.
Macro - regional climate. Varies in size depending on factors affecting it.
Meso - climate of a particular vineyard
Micro - climate in and around vine canopy. Canopy management techniques have been developed to adjust the microclimate of a vine, i.e. exposure to sun and eventual yield
Minimum hours of sunshine needed to support viticulture? How much rain does a vine need?
Sunshine - roughly 1300 hours
Rain - 20-30 inches of rainfall, depending on the warmth of the climate
Name the three most common trellising systems.
Cordon de Royat
Discuss Cordon de Royat training. Where is it preferred and what is it similar to?
Preferred for Pinot Noir in Champagne.
Like Goblet, this training style also utilizes spur pruning. Though instead of head training, one (or two) permanent branch(es), or 'cordon', on one side of the vine, is trained along a fruiting wire. The cordon is never pruned away and bears eight to nine two-bud spurs. Cordons have more buds per vine than Goblet and Guyot, which makes Cordon a good fit for the more fertile and slightly high-vigor sites.
Discuss Guyot training. Who developed it and when? What is it?
Developed by Jules Guyot in the 1860s. For each vine, we preserve one or two of the previous year’s shoots (called canes in their second year) and train them along the fruiting wire; in the spring, the new shoots emerge from the internodes.
Discuss Gobelet training. What are its other names?
Other names include Bush Vines in Australia, Albarello in Italy, and En Vaso in Spain. It's an ancient trellising technique common in Southern Rhone and Southern Italy. The vine is often unsupported. It resembles a goblet, with each year's fruiting canes extending from the spur-pruned, shortened arms atop a trunk.
Discuss 4 other training systems.
1. Geneva - spur-pruned/cordon trained.
2. Lyre - cordons for a flat "U" shape, therefore divided canopy.
3. Vertical Shoot Positioning - used for cane- or spur-pruned
4. Tendone - vines trained up and overhead, spur- or cane-pruned. AKA Pergola in Italy, Enforcado in Portugal
What is the California Heat Summation Index? How many regions are based on degree days?
- 5 regions in CA are based on degree days.
Region 1 - less than 2500 degree days F
Region 2 - 2500-3000 degree days F
Region 3 - 3000-3500 degree days F
Region 4 - 3500-4000 degree days F
Region 5 - more than 4000 degree days F
Degree days are calculated by multiplying the days in each month of the growing season (April 1 - Oct 31) BY the mean number of degrees over 50 degrees F for that month. Month's totals are added together to arrive at Heat Summation.
Describe Selection Massale. Where is it popular?
Popular in Burgundy. You plant the cut cane and 4-5 buds grow underground (so it grows its own roots). Grower can select budwood for replanting from a number of vines throughout their vyd (rather than single clones in clonal selection). In Selection Massale, the grower attempts to reinforce positive traits & eliminate negative traits through appropriate selections. A broad genetic diversity is maintained. The budwood scion is usually grafted onto separate rootstock.
The U.S. is the world _____ largest producer of wine, and claims the world's _____ highest acreage of land under vine.
4th largest producer of wine 5th highest acreage of land under vine
Head-trained vines may be _____ pruned or _____ pruned.
Cane or spur pruned. Cordon-trained vines are spur-pruned.
Most vines are classified as either _____ trained or _____ trained.
Head trained or Cordon trained.
Describe the difference between Head and Cordon Trained.
Cordon - the vine has at least one permanent cane that extends from the trunk, called an arm or cordon. Fruit-bearing shoots emerge from it each season. Requires a trellising system.
Head - No permanent cordon. Trunk ends in a knob, or head. May be supported by simple stake or none at all. Synonym to Gobelet and Bush.
Describe the vine's annual cycle.
Weeping or Bleeding of watery sap: February
Budbreak: March or April
Embryo Bunches: mid-April
Flowering: 6-13 weeks ager initial budbreak; the embryo bunches bloom into small flowers for roughly 10 days
Fruit Set: vines are self-pollinating
Veraison: August; sugars move from leaf to fruit, acid decreases
Harvest: late August through November
Fertilization: post harvest Dormancy: pruned over the winter
Name 3 native grape species found in North America.
Vitis Labrusca (Concord & Catawba)
Vitis Rotundifolia (Scruppernog)
Vitis Aestivalis (Norton)
The first North American wine produced from Vitis Vinifera was...
In 1783 by Franciscan monks at the San Juan Capistrano Mission.
When did George Yount arrive in Napa?
1839. He planted Napa's first vineyard.
Name 3 North American rootstocks:
What is Coulure:
The non-pollination of some of the blossoms caused by cold or wet weather at flowering. This leads to grapes either falling off or never developing. Can reduce crop size. Will NOT affect quality of other grapes.
What is Millerandage:
Poor fruit set as a result of cold or wet weather at flowering. Prevents some of the berries from developing. Leads to uneven grape sizes in a bunch, therefore reducing yield.
What is the chemical make-up of Ethyl Alcohol or Ethanol?
C2H5OH - this is the alcohol formed in the production of wine.
What is Respiration?
When grapevines metabolize some of their magic acid to create energy. Typically happens overnight. On cool nights the grapes need less energy and therefore use up less magic acid.
What are the species of oak trees used to make barrels?
USA - quercus alba
Europe - q. sober or q. sessilis
Winemakers prefer oak from slowly growing trees bc they product denser wood with more slowly extractable flavors.
Limousin: warmer, faster growing trees
Troncais and Nevers: slower growing trees, tighter grained wood
Limousin vs. Nevers and Troncais forests:
Limousin: warmer, faster growing trees Nevers & Troncais: slower growing trees, tighter grained wood
What is the rootstock of St. George?
What does Bordeaux Mixture do?
Helps prevent fungal diseases. It's a mixture of lime, water, and copper sulfate. Used for Downy Mildew.
Double Guyot is NOT an example of spur pruning and cordon training. True or False?
True, because it supports two main canes extending outward from the trunk on opposite sides.
The Tendone trellising system is aka what in Italy and Spain?
Italy - pergola
Spain - enforcado
What bacterium causes Pierce's Disease?
What are VINEA, LIVE, OSCW, CCSW?
VINEA - a sustainability organization in Walla Walla
LIVE - Low Input Viticulture and Enology in Oregon
OSCW - Oregon Sustainable Certified Wine provides 97% of fruit is certified by Salmon-Safe
CCSW - California Certified Sustainable Winegrowing provides incremental certification for wineries and vineyards based on a concept of continual improvement. >60% of Cali's vineyard acreage has been assessed as CCSW.
Name two types of non-manual sorters.