Flashcards in Vocab 1 Deck (34):
what we know when we know a language; the unconscious knowledge that a speaker has about his or her native language.
The observable use of language. The actualization of one's linguistic competence.
errors in language production or comprehension, including hesitations and slips of the tongue.
speech communication chain
The process through which information is communicated, consisting of an information source, transmitter, signal, receiver, and destination.
speech communication chain steps
Think of what you want to communicate, pick out words, put them together in order by following the rules, figure out how to pronounce them, send those pronunciations to your vocal anatomy, speak (send the sounds through the air), perceive (listener hears the sounds), decode (listener interprets sounds as language), and connect (listener receives communicated idea).
interference in the communication chain.
mental repository of linguistic information about words and other lexical expressions, including form, meaning, morphological and syntactic properties.
the mental representation of grammar; the knowledge that a speaker has about the linguistic units and rules of his native language.
the property of languages having different ways to express the same meanings in different contexts according to factors such as geography, social class, gender.
objective description of a speaker's knowledge of a language (competence) based on their use of the language (performance).
evidence that writing and language are not the same
Writing must be taught, it doesn't exist everywhere, neurolinguistic evidence, writing can be edited, and archaeological evidence.
reasons some people believe writing to be superior to speech
writing can be edited, writing must be taught, writing is more physically stable.
a set of rules designed to give instructions regarding the socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" way to speak or write.
use rules and conventions to tell a speaker the way he should or shouldn't use a language.
Charles Hockett's nine design features
mode of communication, semanticity (signals have meaning), pragmatic function (have a purpose), interchangeability (transmit and receive messages), cultural transmission, arbitrariness (connection between form and meaning), discreteness, displacement, and productivity.
mode of communication
means through which a message is transmitted for any given communication system.
property of having signals that convey a meaning, shared by all communication systems.
the useful purpose of any given communication system.
the property of a communication system by which all individuals have the ability to both transmit and review messages.
property of a communication system referring to the fact that at least some aspects of it are learned through interaction with other users of the system.
refers to the fact that word's meaning is not predictable from its linguistic form, nor is its form dictated by its meaning.
the combination of a linguistic form and its meaning.
something that is established, commonly agreed upon, or operating in a certain way according to common practice.
direct correspondence between the physical properties of a form and the meaning that the form refers to.
describes a relationship between form and meaning such that the form of a word bears a resemblance to its meaning.
iconic use of words that are imitative of sound occurring in nature or that have meanings that are associated with such sounds.
the adjective to describe a convention in society.
phenomenon by which certain sounds are evocative of a certain meaning.
the property of communication systems by which complex messages may be built up out of smaller parts.
the property of some communication systems that allows them to be used to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present at the place or time of communication.
the capacity of a communication system (unique to human language) for novel messages built out of discrete units to be produced and understood.
the mode of communication.
myths about signed languages
Signed languages are derived from spoken languages instead of it's own language, sign languages are pantomime (it doesn't have internal structure and is iconic), and signed languages are universal (they are the same wherever you go).