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Flashcards in Vocab 1 Deck (34):
1

Linguistic Competence

what we know when we know a language; the unconscious knowledge that a speaker has about his or her native language.

2

Linguistic Performance

The observable use of language. The actualization of one's linguistic competence.

3

performance error

errors in language production or comprehension, including hesitations and slips of the tongue.

4

speech communication chain

The process through which information is communicated, consisting of an information source, transmitter, signal, receiver, and destination.

5

speech communication chain steps

Think of what you want to communicate, pick out words, put them together in order by following the rules, figure out how to pronounce them, send those pronunciations to your vocal anatomy, speak (send the sounds through the air), perceive (listener hears the sounds), decode (listener interprets sounds as language), and connect (listener receives communicated idea).

6

noise

interference in the communication chain.

7

lexicon

mental repository of linguistic information about words and other lexical expressions, including form, meaning, morphological and syntactic properties.

8

mental grammar

the mental representation of grammar; the knowledge that a speaker has about the linguistic units and rules of his native language.

9

language variation

the property of languages having different ways to express the same meanings in different contexts according to factors such as geography, social class, gender.

10

descriptive grammar

objective description of a speaker's knowledge of a language (competence) based on their use of the language (performance).

11

evidence that writing and language are not the same

Writing must be taught, it doesn't exist everywhere, neurolinguistic evidence, writing can be edited, and archaeological evidence.

12

reasons some people believe writing to be superior to speech

writing can be edited, writing must be taught, writing is more physically stable.

13

prescriptive grammar

a set of rules designed to give instructions regarding the socially embedded notion of the "correct" or "proper" way to speak or write.

14

prescribe

use rules and conventions to tell a speaker the way he should or shouldn't use a language.

15

Charles Hockett's nine design features

mode of communication, semanticity (signals have meaning), pragmatic function (have a purpose), interchangeability (transmit and receive messages), cultural transmission, arbitrariness (connection between form and meaning), discreteness, displacement, and productivity.

16

mode of communication

means through which a message is transmitted for any given communication system.

17

semanticity

property of having signals that convey a meaning, shared by all communication systems.

18

pragmatic function

the useful purpose of any given communication system.

19

interchangeability

the property of a communication system by which all individuals have the ability to both transmit and review messages.

20

cultural transmission

property of a communication system referring to the fact that at least some aspects of it are learned through interaction with other users of the system.

21

arbitrariness

refers to the fact that word's meaning is not predictable from its linguistic form, nor is its form dictated by its meaning.

22

linguistic sign

the combination of a linguistic form and its meaning.

23

convention

something that is established, commonly agreed upon, or operating in a certain way according to common practice.

24

nonarbitrariness

direct correspondence between the physical properties of a form and the meaning that the form refers to.

25

iconic

describes a relationship between form and meaning such that the form of a word bears a resemblance to its meaning.

26

onomatopoeia

iconic use of words that are imitative of sound occurring in nature or that have meanings that are associated with such sounds.

27

conventionalized

the adjective to describe a convention in society.

28

sound symbolism

phenomenon by which certain sounds are evocative of a certain meaning.

29

discreteness

the property of communication systems by which complex messages may be built up out of smaller parts.

30

displacement

the property of some communication systems that allows them to be used to communicate about things, actions, and ideas that are not present at the place or time of communication.

31

productivity

the capacity of a communication system (unique to human language) for novel messages built out of discrete units to be produced and understood.

32

modality

the mode of communication.

33

myths about signed languages

Signed languages are derived from spoken languages instead of it's own language, sign languages are pantomime (it doesn't have internal structure and is iconic), and signed languages are universal (they are the same wherever you go).

34

differences between codes and languages

a code is artificially constructed, represents another language, borrows its structure from a language, and never has a native speaker while a language generally transmits information more quickly and efficiently.