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Living in trees.

Arboreal

1

An individual that cares for an infant but is not a biological parent.

Alloparent

2

The concept that altruistic behavior will be directed toward nonkin if they increase the probability that the recipient will reciprocate at some future time.

Reciprocal Altruism

3

Killing offspring, to increase fitness.

Infanticide

4

The concept that altruistic behavior can be selected for if it increases the probability of survival of close relatives.

Kin Selection

5

Parental behaviors that increase the probability that offspring will survive.

Parental Investment

6

The average difference in body size between adult males and adult females.

Sexual Dimorphism

7

A group of haplorhine primates consisting of monkeys, apes, and humans.

Anthropoids

8

A superfamily of anthropoids consisting of apes and humans. Have a shoulder structure adapted for climbing and hanging, lack a tail, are generally larger than monkeys, and have the largest brain to body ratio among primates.

Hominoids

9

Primitive primates.

Prosimians

10

Moving about on two legs, by a striding motion.

Bipedal

11

A time during the month when females are sexually receptive.

Estrus

12

The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles.

Menopause

13

A method of dating fossils or sites that provides an estimate of the specific date (subject to probabilistic subjects).

Chronometric Dating

14

The study of primate and human evolution.

Paleoanthropology

15

Comparative method of dating fossils and sites that provides an estimate of the older find but not a specific date.

Relative Dating

16

A relative dating method based on the fact that older remains are found deeper in the earth (under the right conditions). This method makes use of the fact that a cumulative buildup of the earth's surface takes place over time.

Stratigraphy

17

The study of what happens to plants and animals after they die. Helps in determining reasons for the distribution and condition of fossils.

Taphonomy

18

A genus of fossil hominin that lived between 4.2 million and 1.8 million years ago and is characterized by bipedal locomotion, small brain size, large face, and large teeth.

Australopithecus

19

A measurement of the interior volume of the brain case measured in cubic centimeters (cc) and used as an approximate estimate of brain size.

Cranial Capacity

20

The large opening at the base of the skull where the spinal cord enters. This opening is located more toward the center of the skull in hominins, who are bipeds, so that the skull sits atop the spine.

Foramen Magnum

21

A ridge of bone running down the center of the top of the skull that serves to anchor chewing muscles.

Sagittal Crest

22

The cheekbone, formed by the connection of the zygomatic and temporal bones on the side of the skull.

Zygomatic Arch