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Flashcards in Vocab Deck (36)
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1

Affirmative Action

Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for AFAM and other victims of past discrimination.

2

Amicus curiae

Friend of the court brief

3

Blanket primary

Primary election in which voters may select a candidate from any party for each office. Same procedure as general elections.

4

Block grants

Federal money given to states with only general guidelines for its use. The states have the authority to decide how the money will be spent.

5

Bread-and-butter issues

Political issues directed at daily concerns for the working class. I.e.: job security, tax rates, wages, etc.

6

Broad constructionism

Belief that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely

7

Budget deficit

When federal expenditures exceed revenues, spends more than it gets

8

Budget resolution

Set of budget guidelines that must pass both houses of Congress by April 15.

9

Categorical grants

Federal aid given to states with strings attached, guidelines on how it must be spent.

10

Civil court

Court in which lawsuits are heard.

11

Civil disobedience

Nonviolent civil disobedience: protest peacefully against laws they believe unjust and be willing to accept arrest as a means of demonstration.

12

Civil liberties

Protections against government power embodied in the Bill of Rights and similar legislation.

13

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Segregation illegal in most public places; increased penalties for discrimination in employment, and withheld federal aid for schools who discriminate.

14

Civil service system

Hire based of merit rather than on political beliefs or alliances. Replaced spoils system.

15

Class action suit

Lawsuit filed on behalf of a group of people.

16

"Clear and present danger"

Limits on free speech if it presents clear and present danger to the public or leads to illegal actions. (Shouting fire in a theatre)

17

Closed primary

Voting is restricted for registered members of a political party

18

Cloture

Motion in senate to end a debate, (stop filibuster). Requires 3/5 of senate vote

19

Concurrent powers

Constitutional powers held by federal and state govt's

20

Congressional Budget Office

Congressional agency of budget experts who asses the feasibility of the president's plan and who help create Congress' version of the budget.

21

A constitutional convention (not where Constitution was written)

(Not done yet) Way of amending the constitution.

22

Cooperative federalism

"Marble cake" federalism, federal and state cooperate and share many powers

23

Dealignment

Voters act independent of party affiliation. One consequence is spilt ticket voting

24

Dual federalism

"Layered cake" federalism. Federal and state separate and independent.

25

Due process of law

Legal procedures for arrest and trial of an accused criminal.

26

Earmark

Provision within legislation that appropriates money to a specific project, usually to a specific region or small group of people.

27

Elastic clause

Section of Constitution that allows Congress to pass laws that are "necessary and proper" to the performance of its duties.

28

Entitlement programs

Social insurance programs that allocate federal funds to all people who meet the conditions. I.e. Social security

29

Equal Rights Amendment

Failed Constitutional amendment that would have guaranteed equal protection under law for women.

30

Establishment clause

Gov can't "help" religion.

31

Ex post facto laws

Banned in constitution. These laws would punish people for actions that occurred before such actions were made criminal.

32

Exclusionary rule

Rule that prohibits the use of illegally obtained evidence at a trial.

33

Executive agreement

Same legal force as treaties but do not require senate approval. Not mentioned in constitution. Usually procedural.

34

Executive privilege

Right of the president to withhold info when doing so would compromise national security.

35

Extradition

Process by which governments return fugitives to the jurisdiction from which they fled.

36

Adversarial System

System of law where the court is neutral, disputants can argue the merits of their cause.