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Flashcards in Vocab Deck (22)
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1

Embryo

from the time of fertilization until the pregnancy is 8 wks along (10 wks GA)

2

Fetus

after 8 wks until the time of birth 

3

1st trimester

2nd trimester

3rd trimester

  • 1st trimester: 12-14 wks GA
  • 2nd trimester: 12-14 to 24-28 wks GA
  • 3rd trimester: 24-28 until delivery 

4

Pre-viable

Pre-term 

Term

Post-term 

  • Pre-viable: prior to 24 wks 
  • Pre-term: 24-37 wks 
  • Term: 37-42 wks 
  • Post-term: beyond 42 wks  

5

Gravity

Parity 

  • Gravity: # of times a woman has been pregnant 
  • Parity: # of pregnancies that led to a birth at or beyond 20 wks GA or of an infant weighing >500g

6

Gestational age

Developmental age 

  • Gestational age: age in wks & days measured from the LMP
  • Developmental age: # of wks & days since fertilization 
  • GA is usually 2 wks more than the DA 

7

Nagele rule for estimated date of confinement (ECC) or estimated date of delivery (EDD)

subtract 3 months from the LMP & add 7 days 

8

What are the signs of pregnancy?

  1. Bluish discoloration of vagina & cervix (Chadwick sign)
  2. Softening & cyanosis of the cervix at or after 4 wks (Goodell sign)
  3. Softening of the uterus after 6 wks (Ladin sign)
  4. Breast swelling & tenderness 
  5. Development of the linea nigra from umbilicus to pubis 
  6. Telangiectasias 
  7. Palmar erythema 

9

What are the symptoms of pregnancy?

  1. Amenorrhea
  2. N&V
  3. Breast pain
  4. Quickening (fetal movement) 

10

Hyperemesis gravidarum 

severe form of morning sickness associated w/ weight loss (>5% of prepregnancy weight) & ketosis 

11

Initial visit & 1st trimester tests 

  • Hematocrit
  • Blood type & screen
  • RPR/VDRL
  • Rubella Ab screen
  • HepB surface antigen 
  • Gonorrhea/Chlamydia cultures 
  • PPD
  • Pap smear
  • Urinalysis & culture 
  • VZV titer in patients w/ no hx of exposure
  • HIV offered 
  • Early screening for aneuploidy (NT plus serum markers) 

12

2nd trimester tests 

  • MSAFP/triple or quad screen 
  • Obstetric ultrasound
  • Amniocentesis for women interested in prenatal diagnosis 

13

3rd trimester tests 

  • Hematocrit
  • RPR/VDRL
  • GLT
  • Group B Strep culture 

14

Risk factors for Ectopic Pregnancy 

  1. Hx of STIs or PID
  2. Prior ectopic 
  3. Previous tubal surgery
  4. Prior pelvic or abdominal surgery (adhesions)
  5. Endometriosis
  6. Current use of exogenous hormones (progesterone, estrogen)
  7. IVF & other assisted reproduction
  8. DES-exposed patients w/ congenital abnormalities 
  9. Congenital abnormalities of the fallopian tubes 
  10. Use of an IUD for birth control
  11. Smoking 

15

Abortus

 

fetus lost before 20 wks gestation or <500g

16

Complete abortion 

complete expulsion of all POC <20 wks gestation

17

Incomplete abortion 

partial expulsion of some but not all POC <20 wks gestation 

18

Inevitable abortion 

no expulsion of products, but vaginal bleeding & dilation of the cervix such that a viable pregnancy is unlikely 

19

Threatened abortion 

any vaginal bleeding <20 wks, w/o dilation of the cervix or expulsion of any POC (i.e. normal pregnancy w/ bleeding)

20

Missed abortion 

death of the embryo or fetus <20 wks w/ complete retention of all POC

21

Differential diagnosis of 1st trimester bleeding

  1. SAB
  2. Postcoital bleeding
  3. Ectopic pregnancy
  4. Vaginal or cervical lesions or lacerations
  5. Extrusion of molar pregnancy 
  6. Nonpregnancy causes of bleeding

22

Risk factors for cervical incompetence

  1. Hx of cervical surgery (cone biopsy or dilation of cervix) 
  2. Hx of cervical lacerations w/ vaginal delivery
  3. Uterine anomalies 
  4. Hx of DES exposure