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JF Broken Spanish Study > Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocab Deck (126):
1

A la minute

A manner of doing things at the last minute. 

2

Achiote

A shrub or small tree known for the seeds from it's fruit, "Annato Seeds", used in achiote paste, typically used to color and marinade meats.

3

Adobado

Immersion of raw food in a stock/sauce usually including paprika, oregano, salt, garlic, and vinegar. Preserves and enhances the flavor of the original raw food.

4

Aguamiel

Maguery cactus sap.

5

Ahogada

Drowned in sauce or wet. As in quesadilla ahogada or torta ahogada.

6

Al Carbón

Barbecued over wood or charcoal. (i.e., Pollo Al Carbón)

7

Al Pastor

A dish developed in central mexico, likely as a result o the adoption of the Shawarma spit-grilled meat brought by Lebanese immigrants to Mevico. Being derived from shawarma, it is also similar to the Turkish done kebab and the Greek gyros. Whereas shawarma is usually lamb-based (thus the “shepard style” name), gyros and tacos al pastor are made from pork.

8

Anaheim Pepper

Mild variety of the New Mexico chile pepper. When they are grown in the Hatch Valley of New Mexico they are referred to as Hatch Chiles.

9

Ancho Chile

Aged, dried Poblano peppers.

It is broad and 3 to 4 inches long, a deep-reddish brown; it ranges in flavor from mild to pungent.

10

Asado

Marinated then broiled meats

11

Atole

Hot, masa based corn beverage. Usually Masa, piloncillo, cinnamon, vanilla. Often served with chocolate, which is called "Champurrado".

12

Bacalao

Salted cod, which has been preserved by drying after salting.

Drying preserves many nutrients and process of salting and drying codfish is said to make it tastier. In some regions of Mexico, it is soaked in warm water overnight and then dipped in flour, battered and egg and fried. Once the fish is fried, it is then simmered in red sauce and served on Christmas dinner.

13

Barbacoa

A style of cooking, the original "barbecue" (from the Taíno people in the Carribean). Can be slow cooked over fire, or buried and steamed under manguey leaves. Can refer to any meat that's steamed until tender.

14

Barley

Cereal Grain. Mainly used for adding malt. Present in most beer.

In 2005, Barley ranked fourth in quantity produced and in area of cultivation of cereal crops in the world.

15

Blanch

To plunge a food item into salted boiling water very briefly, and then into ice water, to stop the cooking process.

16

Bolillo

Crusty rolls used for tortas. A variant of a baguette.

17

Bolsa

Bag.

18

Bolsa

Bag.

19

Brunoise

A mixture of vegetable that has been finely diced. Or a knife cut measuring 1/8th of an inch.

20

Cajeta

A Mexican confection of thickened syrup, made of sweetened caramelized goat's milk. This is the goat's milk version of dulce de leche.

21

Calamansi

A bitter lime from the Philippines. It has a fragrant, orange flesh, and a dark green skin.

22

Camotes

Translates to "sweet potatoes", traditionally glazed with piloncillo.

23

Canela

Cinnamon

24

Carnitas

Literally means "little meats", this style originated in Michoacán. Pork is braised or simmered in oil or lard for several hours until tender and juicy. Typically served with cilantro, onion, salsa, guacamole, refried beans and tortillas.

25

Cascabel

Also known as the rattle chili, because it has the tendency of its loose seeds to rattle inside a dried casabel when shaken. Color of the fresh chiles blend from green to red, but darkens when dried.

26

Cayenne

Pepper, typically ground and made into spice.

27

Cebada

Translates to "barley" in Spanish, but refers to the beverage known as "Agua de Cebada". Similar in recipe to Horchata, this is a barley-based beverage. The barley is soaked and boiled with water, and creates a milky liquid. Most recipes add cinnamon and vanilla, then served over ice.

There is cebada in the Gringo cocktail.

28

Ceviche

A style of cooking raw fish without heat-- instead acid (usually citrus, lime or lemon) is added to the fish which "cooks" it.

29

Chapulín

Small grasshoppers, a commonly eaten snack in Mexico—especially Oaxaca. Typically they are toasted on a comal with garlic, lime, and salt, which gives them a sour-spicy-salty taste.

30

Chicharrones

Technically this refers to a cooking technique of frying something very thing to make it puffy and crispy.Colloquially, it refers to pork skin prepared in this style.

31

Chile Meco

Chipotle pepper. Smoke dried Jalapeno.

32

Chile Toreado

A chile rubbed between your hands (like a tornado, hence the name) to loosen the seeds and the veins and increase the heat of the chile. Usually served alongside a meal, and you're meant to alternate bites between the food and the chile.

33

Chivo

Goat.

34

Chorizo

A type of pork sausage made since Roman times. While exact styles vary worldwide, Mexican Chorizo is usually flavored with native chili peppers and encased in a natural intestine casing. They can be fresh, in which case they must be cooked before eating, or fermented/cured/smoked to be a dry sausage, which can be sliced and eaten or added to other dishes.

35

Churro

a fried dough (choux) pastry, often incorporating cinnamon, chocolate, and other spices. Sometimes served knotted, sometimes long and thick, and often dipped in hot chocolate or café con leche.

36

Cilantro

The bright green leaves and stem of the coriander plant. Has a soapy, citrusy taste. Often used alongside hot/spicy foods.

37

Coctel

Spanish for cocktail, usually refers to poached or marinated seafood in a tomato based cocktail sauce.

38

Comal

Smooth flat griddle typically used to cork tortillas. Generally made of heavy cast iron.

39

Coriander

Spice made from the seed of the coriander plant. Similar flavor to lemon, sage, caraway. Not similar in flavor to Cilantro, despite the shared parent.

40

Cotija Cheese

A hard cow's milk cheese that originated in Mexico. Comes as "Cotija de Montaña/ Grain Cheese" which is dry, firm, and salty. "Tajo" cheese is moister and fattier, not dissimilar to parmesan or feta.

41

Crema Sorbet

Crema is 2 parts cream to 1 part buttermilk. No eggs.

42

Crémeux

French for “creamy”, its a dense, soft, classic pudding.

43

Cryo-Vac

Vacuum sealing

44

Doritos (AKA Duros)

Popular Mexican snack food made of puffed wheat, flavored with chili and lime. Not available in Cool Ranch or Nacho Cheesier.

45

Dulce de Leche

Literally "milk candy" in Spanish, it is a confection made by slowly heating sweetened milk that results in a sweet, caramel-like mixture.

46

Escabeche

A pickling mixture. At BS Taqueria, it has onion, garlic, carrot, and chiles.

47

Espelette Pepper

Although not native to the basque region— it was brought to the area from Mexico in the 16th century— the Espelette pepper has become a specialty of the region. This chili pepper is bright red, with a long tapered body and a flavor that’s slightly sweet and rich with spicy heat similar to a Jalapeño. The basques use this pepper much like black peppercorn is used in the states. The pepper holds the french AOC certification, which means only peppers sold in Espelette (or one of 9 other villages) that have been sun dried for 15+ days can be sold as Espelette Peppers.

48

Esquites

A small snack of boiled, then sautéed corn. The word comes from the Nahiatl word "ízquitl", which means "toasted corn". The corn used is not dried, but fresh. Its boiled then sautéed with butter and onions and topped with lime juice, chile powder, salt and mayonnaise. Usually served in a cup.

49

Fleur De Sel

Sea Salt

50

Fennel

A broad bulbous base treated like a vegetable. Both base and stem can be eaten. Flavor is sweeter and more delicate than anise.

51

Foie Gras

goose liver that has been specially fattened. Foie can also be made from duck liver.

52

Fresno Chiles

Similar to the jalapeno, but red, thinner, hotter, and more delicious.

53

Fundido

A Mexican "fondue" or melted cheese dish. Often made with chorizo.

Chef Ray's Queso Fundido is quesillo cheese, roasted tomato and peppers and Bacalao, a reconsituted salted and dried cod.

54

Galahad Flour

A brand of flour made by King Arthur Mill. Milled entirely from premium hard red winter wheat to produce traditional, more flavorful baked goods, hearth breads, and pizza for artisan bakers.

55

Gazpacho

A cold, tomato-based soup made of raw vegetables. This dish originated in the Spanish region of Andalusia.

56

Guajolota

A tamal inside a bolillo. The traditional "tamal torta" of Mexico City.

57

Habanero Chile

Small, lanterned shaped chili that can be green, yellow, or orange. Usually used in sauces/salsas

58

Harissa

From tunisia, this fiery-hot sauce is usually made with hot chiles, garlic, cumin, coriander, caraway, and olive oil.

59

Hearts of Palm

A vegetable harvested from the inner-core of a palm tree. It has a firm texture, slender shape, ivory color, and smooth flavor reminiscent of an artichoke. They can be eaten fresh, as well as pickled or canned.

60

Heirloom Produce

An old cultivar (plant variety) that is “still maintained by gardeners and farmers, particularly in isolated or ethnic communities”. These may have been commonly grown during earlier times, but are not used in modern, large-scale agriculture.

61

Hoja Santa

An aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf. Literally translated as "sacred leaf", also called "yerba santa".

62

Hominy

Corn kernals which have been bloated, broken down, and detached from the husk by Nixtamalization.

63

Horchata

A traditional beverage, typically made of almonds, rice, or tigernuts, served iced cold. The nuts or rice are steeped in water, which results in a milky liquid. Other ingredients include sugar, cinnamon and vanilla. It originated in Spain and was originally made using tigernuts because of the influence of the Muslim population during the 8th - 13th centuries.

64

Infuse

To extract flavors from ingredients, such as tea leaves, herbs, or fruit by steeping them in a liquid.

65

Jalapeño

America’s most popular pepper. A medium-sized chili pepper. A mature jalapeño fruit is 5-10 cm long, and is commonly pickled and consumed while still green, but occasionally it is allowed to fully ripen and turn crimson red. Originating in Mexico, the jalapeño is a cultivar of the species capsicum annum, which usually grows as a bush about 60-120 cm tall. It is named after Xalapa, Veracruz, where it was traditionally cultivated.

66

Kewpie Mayo

A Japanese mayonnaise, which uses rice wine vinegar instead of distilled and egg yolks instead of whole eggs, as well as a small amount of MSG.

67

Leeks

A member of the genus allium, which includes garlic and onion, though it’s flavor and fragrance are milder and subtler. It looks like a giant green onion, with a thick, white, cylindrical, stalk and a slightly bulbous root end.

68

Manteca

A lard used in cooking and baking.

69

Masa

Spanish for dough. Often in the Americas, and definitely in our restaurant, it's used as shorthand for "masa de maíz", or corn dough.Masa de maiz is made from Hominy, which is Corn that has undergone Nixtamalization. [Hominy and Nixtamalization are separate cards]It can come in a powdered form, called masa de harina, or Maseca (the name of a leading commercial brand).

70

Masienda

Masienda supplies our masa, which we cook into tortillas on site.Masienda is known for working hand in hand with small Mexican farms to create a masa the promotes fair trade and non-GMO produce while also highlighting the best and most natural flavors.

71

Meyer Lemon

Meyer lemons have a rounder shape and smoother skin than common commercial lemons. Their color ranges from deep yellow to yellow-orange.The aromatic juice is sweeter and less acidic than that of regular lemons. Meyer lemons are available from November through May in specialty produce markets.

72

Milanesa

A thin slice of almost anything, traditionally beef, chicken, or veal, but sometimes pork, eggplant, beet, or even soy. Each slice is dipped into beaten eggs, seasoned with salt, and other condiments according to the cook’s taste (like parsley and garlic). Each slice is then dipped in bread crumbs (or occasionally flour) and shallow-fried in oil.

73

Mixiote

Traditional pit-barbecued meat dish in Central Mexico. Can also be prepared in an oven. The meat is cubed (sometimes with the bone) and seasoned. It is then wrapped in small packages made of the tough semi-transparent outer skin of the leaves of the Maguey or Century plant.

Ours uses a clear, heat-resistant plastic wrap that is food safe. 

74

Mojo

Sauce poured on top of a dish

75

Molletes

An open-faced sandwich made with Bolillo, which is traditionally topped with refried beans and melted cheese.

Ours is served with refried peas, Yerba Buena (spearmint), pecan honey butter, and panela cheese.

76

Moronga

Traditionally a sausage made of pig's blood, spices, herbs (ruda, oregano, and mint), onions, and chili peppers are added then boiled in the pig's intestines for several hours. Served with either chili rojo or chili verde. 

Chef's Moronga is pork belly with white onion, apple, chipotle and serrano, pig's blood baked in a terrine mold, served with sliced peaches and arugula.

77

Nixtamalization

A preparation process for corn or other grains, you soak or cook the grain in an alkaline solution (usually lime-water), and then hull the grain.This allows the grain to be more easily ground, it also increases it's nutritional value, flavor, and aroma. It does this by breaking down the cell walls of the grain.This allows the corn kernels to be removed, creating Hominy, which is pulverized into Masa de maiz, which is cooked into tortillas.

78

Paco Jet

A kitchen appliance that micro-purees deep-frozen foods into ultra-fine textures, such as mousses, sauces, and sorbets, without needing the frozen goods to be thawed.

79

Pan Dulce

Translates to "sweet bread" Its a broad category for sweet breads; this specific type is called "Pan Maracado". It is a Spanish Brioche, slightly sweeter than a typical brioche but of similar texture.

This is used in the Rebanada on the menu.

This entered Mexican culture with the influence of French and Spanish culture. This is a common inexpensive treat eaten daily as breakfast or late supper.

80

Pan Elote

Corn Bread

81

Pasilla Pepper

Name means "little raisin"

82

Pequin

Very hot peppers. Flavor is described as citrusy and nutty (smoky, if dried with wood smoke).

83

Pico de Gallo

Minced or processed salsa.

84

Piloncillo

Pressed, unrefined brown sugar.

85

Pipian

A flavorful, tangy Mexican sauce traditionally served over roast chicken. It is part of a larger family of ground sauces known as moles, and it has a very distinctive nutty, earth flavor.

86

Poblano

A mild chili pepper originating in Publea, Mexico. When dried it is called the ANCHO or ANCHO CHILE, from the Mexican Spanish name ancho (wide). The ripened red poblano is significantly hotter and more flavorful than the less ripe, green poblano. While poblanos tend to have a mild flavor, occasionally and unpredictably they can have significant heat. Different peppers from the same plant can still differ in head intensity.

87

Quemada

burnt carrot salsa

88

Quesillo

A very popular type of string cheese sold in balls of various sizes. Also known as "Queso Oaxaca"

89

Pickling

Also known as brining or curing, is the process of preserving food by aerobic fermentation in brine (a solution of salt in water), to produce lactic acid, or marinating and boring it in an acid solution, usually vinegar (acetic acid). The resulting food is called a pickle. This procedure gives the food a salty or sour tasty.

90

Quinoa

A South American grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds. It is high in protein, lacks gluten, and is tolerant of dry soil.

91

Queso Fresco

A creamy, soft, mild, unaged white cheese.

92

Rebanada

Spanish for "slice", it refers to a type of sweet bread.

93

Rajas

Fried poblano pepper slices.

94

Relleno

Filled

95

Requeson

a Latin cheese that is very similar to Ricotta. It is made from cow, goat, or sheep's milk. It is made by adding 10% milk to whey, the residue left from cheese production. Because of this production, it must be eaten fresh. This cheese is high in protein and low in fat and has a characteristic salty flavor and slightly lumpy texture.

96

Romanesco

Q image thumb

Romanesco broccoli, also known as Romanesque cauliflower or simply as Romanesco, is an edible flower bud of the species Brassica oleracea. First documented in Italy, it is light green in color. Romanesco has a striking appearance because its form is a natural approximation of a fractal. When compared to a traditional cauliflower, its texture as a vegetable is far more crunchy, and its flavour is not as assertive, being delicate and nutty.

97

Sable

Pronounced "Saw-BLAY", literally translates in French to "sand", it is a French short bread cookie. French bakers also use this word to refer to breadcrumbs or anthing with a similar texture. This texture is acheived by adding cold butter to flour and sugar.

98

Panela

Queso panela (panela cheese) is a white, fresh and smooth Mexican cheese of pasteurized cow's milk. The cheese also has similarities to the Indian cheese paneer.

99

Salpicon

Spanish for "medley" or "hodgepodge." This is typically a mixture of a grilled protein, onion, serrano, avocado, tomato, and vinegar, which is then used as a filling, or served on tortillas.

100

Salsa

A popular tomato based condiment.

101

Salsa Cruda

Uncooked salsa.

102

Salsa Fresca

Uncooked salsa.

103

Nopal

Edible prickly pear cactus.

104

Sea Bean

Sea Beans (Salicornia europaea) are edible, either cooked or raw. Its flesh, after cooking, resembles seaweed in color, and the flavor and texture are like young spinach stems or asparagus. Also known as Samphire (or St. Peter's herb) it is often used as a suitably salty maritime accompaniment to fish or seafood.

105

Scotch Bonnet

A variety of chili pepper to and of the same species as the habanero. It is one of the hottest peppers in the world. Found mainly in the Caribbean islands, it is named for it’s resemblance to a Tam o’shanter. Most Scotch Bonnets have a heat rating of 100,000-350,000 Scoville units. For comparison most jalapeños have a heat rating of 2500-8000 Scoville units.

106

Sear

To brown a product quickly by subjecting it to high heat, making a “seal” to hold in a product’s juices.

107

Serrano

Peppers. Hot, but not too hot. Can be red or green.

108

Shallot

Formed more like garlic than onions, with a head composed of multiple cloves, each covered with a thin, papery skin. Shallots are favored for their mild onion flavor and can be used in the same manner as onions.

109

Shock

To plunge blanched foods immediately into a water bath consisting of a high amount of ice, water, and salt.

110

Morels

The morel is an edible wild mushroom. It is spongy, honey-combed, cone-shape and ranges in size from 2-4 inches high, and in color from a rich tan to an extremely dark brown. The morel is widely applauded by gourmets, who savor its smokey, earthy, and nutty flavor. In general, the darker the mushroom, the stronger the flavor. Wild morels usually appear in specialty produce markets in April and the season can last through June. Cultivated Morels may appear sporadically throughout the year. Choose fresh specimens that have a firm yet spongy texture.

111

Simmer

To cook food gently in a liquid at roughly 185 degrees Fahrenheit, low enough that tiny bubbles just break the surface.

112

Simple Syrup

Equal parts water and sugar that has been brought to a boil and is used to sweeten various foods and drinks.

113

Slow Blanch

To bring food product starting from cold water to either a boil or a simmer depending on the recipe.

114

Sofrito

This sauce is the cornerstone of many latino dishes. It's made by sauteeing anato seeds in rendered porkfat, then removing the seeds and adding onions, garlic, pork, peppers, and other herbs to taste. The sauce is typically then put aside and used as needed in various recipes.

115

Sous-Vide

French term, meaning "under vacuum". Food is sealed in an airless bag and then cooked in a hot water bath for a specific time.

116

Star Anise

A spice that closely resembles anise in flavor, obtained from the star-shaped pericarp of illicit serum, a small native evergreen tree of southwest China.

117

Streusel

A crumbly topping of flour, butter and sugar that is used in baking and pastry-making. This differs from Sable in that it has a coarser texture.

118

Sunchoke

Also known as Jerusalem artichoke, it is not truly an artichoke but a variety of sunflower that resembles a ginger root. The white flesh of this vegetable is nutty, sweet and crunchy. Should be eaten raw in salad or cooked by boiling or steaming.

119

Tamales

Any kind of filling, with masa (tortilla dough) and lard wrapped around it, then wrapped in a corn husk and steamed.

120

Telera

A flat bread, similar to a boillio, but flatter and bigger.

121

Tomatillo

Like a small tomato with a husk. Used in green sauces.

122

Truffles

Fungus that grows 3-12 inches long underground, near the roots of trees (usually Oak, but also chestnut, hazel, and beech). Truffles have a rather unappealing appearance- thick, round, and wrinkled skin that varies in color from off white to almost black. Dark truffles are used to flavor cooked foods. The more mildly flavored, but stronger smelling, white truffles are usually served raw by grating them over foods. They are also added at the last minute to cooked foods.

123

Valrhona

A premium chocolate manufacturer, based in Hermitage, France (near Lyon). Founded in 1922 by pastry chef Abéric Guironnet, this is also the site for École du Grand Chocolat, a school for professional chefs with an emphasis on chocolate.

124

Verdolaga

Purslane or verdolagas, one of those ingredients that Mexicans hanker for when outside of Mexico, is likely to be growing in your backyard. In Mexico, it is considered one of the quelites or edible herbs. It is nutritious and succulent, yet it has long been considered a weed in the United States. Indeed, once it grows roots, it spreads and grows fast. It is essential to the cuisine of Central Mexico.

125

Yerba Buena

Spearmint

Spanish for"good herb." The specific plant varies region to region", but mainly refers to the aromatic "true mints" which have a citrus scent. The herb is used both medicinally and in the kitchen.

126

Pain d'Epi

(a.k.a. Epi) A type of baguette-style bread. It has a distinctly crunchy outer crust, while the crumb (inside of the bread) maintains an elasticity. It is tear-drop-shaped.

Used in the Molletes on the menu.