Vocab: Ch 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab: Ch 10 Deck (32):
1

Hijra

emigration or flight of Muhammad in 622 from Mecca to Medina

2

Kaaba

literally “cube”, it is former polytheistic temple in Mecca that Muslims circumambulate during the Haj

3

Haj

the once-in-a-lifetime holy pilgrimage to Mecca undertaken by faithful Muslims

4

Holy Qur’an or Koran

the sacred book of Muslims, meaning “recitations”’

5

surah

chapters of the Qur’an, 114 in all, further subdivided by verse

6

The 5 Pillars of Islam

1. professing faith in Allah, the one God
2. worshipping Allah 5 times daily facing the direction of Mecca
3. almsgiving to the poor
4. fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
5. if possible, making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one’s lifetime

7

sunnah

meaning “path” or “surface road”: a collection of holy guidance for living daily life, its customs and ethical practices for Muslims

8

Imam

“the one who stands or walks in front”, applied to the man who guides or leads prayers in a mosque

9

Caliph

chief civil and religious Muslim leader and proper successor to Muhammad, in Arabic, “deputy of God”

10

caliphate

the dominion of a caliph

11

aniconic

imagery that does not depict figural images

12

voussoirs

wedge-shaped stones that form a round or pointed arch

13

mosque

Muslim place of worship

14

masjid

“place of prostration” in Arabic, another word for mosque

15

sahn

large central courtyard of a mosque compound

16

minaret

tower on a mosque from which a muezzin calls Muslim faithful to prayer 5 times daily

17

muezzin

man who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer 5 times daily from a minaret

18

hypostyle hall

a forest of columns that hold up a roof, creating an interior space

19

qibla

the direction of Mecca; one wall of a mosque will be the qibla wall and the architecture and furnishing will be oriented to it and worshippers will face it while at prayer

20

minbar

a stepped pulpit installed in front of the qibla wall in a mosque

21

mihrab

a narrow semicircular niche usually set in the qibla wall; its purpose in unclear

22

maqsura

Arabic for “closed off space”, it is an enclosure near the qibla wall designed to be occupied by the local ruler and provide for their safety while emphasizing their elevated social status

23

iwan

a vaulted hall walled on only 3 sides with one side completely open

24

arabesque

a motif of surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils or plain lines

25

engaged column

a column that is sunken into a wall; it is not a true load-bearing column

26

squinch

a straight or arched structure across an interior angle of a square tower to carry a dome

27

fenestration

the program of windows in a building

28

Kufic

an early form of Arabic calligraphic script, named for its city of origin, Kufa

29

alameda

Spanish for “mall”, a promenade shaded by trees

30

muqarnas

stalactite-like stucco forms that drape down from a dome

31

madrasa

Arabic for “place of study”, it denotes a school for the study of Islamic law

32

Muhaqqaq

a late cursive style of calligraphic script