Vocab: Ch 15 & 32 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab: Ch 15 & 32 Deck (56):
1

bitumen

similar to asphalt, it is a naturally occurring black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons useful as a waterproof mortar

2

boss

a circular knob

3

moulage

matrix into which a seal is pressed to raise an impression

4

Siddhartha Gautama

the Buddha (Enlightened One), born ca. 486-400 BCE

5

samsara

cycle of death and rebirth changing the status of the individual in accordance with the type of life one lived previously

6

karma

the quality of one's actions influencing the outcome of the next rebirth to high or low
status (from animal to deity, it depended on whether your Karma was good or bad)

7

Moksha or Nirvana

a person's ultimate goal - escaping the repeated cycle of birth-death-rebirth by uniting the individual self with the source of the universe

8

ahimsa

the principle of non-violence towards all living things

9

Shakyamuni

"the sage of the Shakyas", the historical Buddha

10

The Four Noble Truths

1. Life is suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desire/attachment
3. Desire can be extinguished and suffering will end
4. To reach this liberated state, one follows the Noble Eightfold Path

11

The Noble Eight-fold Path

1. Right understanding (wisdom)
2. Right intention (wisdom)
3. Right speech (one's ethical conduct)
4. Right action (one's ethical conduct)
5. Right livelihood (one's ethical conduct)
6. Right effort (meditation; mental discipline)
7. Right mindfulness (meditation; mental discipline)
8. Right concentration (meditation; mental discipline)

12

dharma wheel

also called the wheel of the law - a visual representation of the Eight-fold path as
a wheel with 8 spokes, one for each of the path's components

13

Amitabha Buddhism (Japanese: Amida)

form of Japanese Buddhism also known as Pure Land Buddhism whereby rebirth in a western Pure Land by the grace of the Amitabha Buddha nirvana may be achieved

14

chakra

a wheel, representing the Buddha's law

15

stupa

a Buddhist shrine shaped as a half dome mound

16

mandala

a sacred diagram of the universe

17

toranas

gates at a stupa that mark the 4 cardinal directions

18

harmika

a square space set aside to symbolize the holy territory of the deities atop a stupa

19

yasti

a tall pole arising from a harmika linking the heavens and earth as an axis or "axis mundi"

20

jatakas

scenes from the last life and past lives of the Buddha

21

yakshi (masculine: yaksha)

a sexually robust, youthful adult female (or male figure) that symbolizes the creative force of reproduction

22

tribhanga

exaggerated posture of the body posed to bend in three places - the head and lower
limbs angled together with the torso angled in the opposite way - achieving a sense of
swaying movement

23

Chaitya hall

a hall carved from living rock with a stupa positioned in the apse end

24

lakshanas

iconic symbols that characterize images of the Buddha

25

ushnisha

a cranial bump symbolizing divine knowledge

26

urna

a curling lock of hair represented by a dainty dot between the eyebrows symbolizing the
Buddha's divine wisdom

27

mudras

hand gestures used to express the mood and meaning of images of Hindu, Jian or Buddhist divinities

28

abhaya

the mudra of protection where the hand is raised to face the worshipper meaning "do
not fear"

29

varada

the mudra of bestowing where one hand is lowered with fingers pointing downward

30

bhumisparsha

mudra of calling the world to attend to the Buddha's enlightenment where his left hand reaches down to the ground

31

dharmachakra

the mudra of preaching where both hands join fingers in a complex gesture that recall the Buddha's first sermon

32

dhyana

the mudra of meditation where a seated figure has palms upward and placed one on the other in the sitter's lap

33

positioning perspective

pictorial device where objects placed higher up in the composition are meant to be perceived as further back in space

34

Shiva

Hindu god of destruction and regeneration, sometimes appearing in the guise of the Lord
of the Dance (Nataraja) tramping the dwarf of ignorance

35

Vishnu

many-armed Hindu god who assumes many avatars when he intervenes in human affairs
to balance good and evil. His 9th incarnation is the Buddha.

36

Krishna

blue-skinned Hindu god who embodies love and celestial joy and instigates all types of knowledge

37

Devi

Hindu goddess who both creates and destroys and the mother of Ganesha, she is also a consort to male gods: paired with Shiva she is his wife Uma or Parvati; paired with Vishnu she is Lakshmi; paired with Krishna she is Radha

38

linga

an image of a phallus or pillar representing the god Shiva, it was a permanent object in a
Shiva temple

39

darshan

Hindu custom of viewing images of their deities

40

Mahadeva

Hindi for Great God, or Lord of Lords, image type for portraying Shiva with 3 or 4 faces

41

mithunas

pairs of humans portrayed in rapturous sexual embraces

42

rathas

chariots or vehicles for deities

43

garbha griha

a Hindu temple's dimly lit cave-like "womb chamber" where one finds Hindu cult statues and sacred art; only Brahmin priests may enter them to offer sacrifices

44

vimana

stepped pyramid tower on a Hindu temple

45

mandapas

sacred halls leading to the garbha griha at a Hindu temple

46

shikhara

beehive-like tower of a northern Hindu temple

47

amalaka

a ribbed cushion shaped carved stone capping a shikhara reminiscent of the amala fruit

48

chattra

"axis mundi" parasol symbol of protection from suffering, desire, and spiritually
destructive forces; it also symbolizes how a mountain upholds the dome of the sky

49

miniatum

red pigment used in painting miniatures; hence the name miniature

50

shaykh

white-bearded holy man

51

cenotaph

a false tomb

52

pietra dura

decorative stonework technique where semi-precious and precious stones are inlaid
in marble

53

Gita Govinda

the "Song of the Cow Herd", an epic chronicle of the amorous adventures of Krishna and young lady cow herders or gopis

54

gopis

young lady cow herders who consort with Krishna

55

contrapposto

the natural weight shift of the body as it stands or strides

56

Sinosphere

regions encompassed under heavy Chinese influence