VOCAB GHC Ch 2: Internal Energy and Plate Tectonics Flashcards Preview

1st Semester > VOCAB GHC Ch 2: Internal Energy and Plate Tectonics > Flashcards

Flashcards in VOCAB GHC Ch 2: Internal Energy and Plate Tectonics Deck (70):
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Centigrade

A temperature scale that divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100°. Conversion from the Fahrenheit scale is by C=5/9(F -32).

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Fahrenheit

temperature scale in which the boiling point of water is 212° and freezing point is 32° Conversion from the centigrade scale is by F= 9/5 C +32.

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Nuclear fusion

Combining smaller atoms to make larger atoms, with a resultant release of energy.

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Solar radiation

Energy emitted from the sun mostly in the infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet wavelengths.

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Mantle

The largest zone on earth, comprising 83% by volume and 67% by mass.

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Core

The central zone or nucleus of earth about 2900 km below the surface. The core is made mostly of iron and nickel and exists as a solid inner zone surrounded by a liquid outer shell. Earth's magnetic field originates within the core.

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Crust

The outermost layer of the lithosphere, composed of relatively low-density materials. The continental crust has lower density then oceanic crust.

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Liquid

Implies a flow characteristic of water. It has a definite volume but no definite shape.

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Viscous

Ease of flow. The more viscous a substance, the less readily flows.

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Lithosphere

The outer rigid shell of the earth that lies above the asthenosphere and below the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

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Asthenosphere

The layer of the earth below the lithosphere in which isostatic adjustments take place. The rocks here deform readily and flow slowly.

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Mesosphere

(One) The mantle from the base of the asthenosphere to the top of the core. (Two) The atmospheric layer about the stratosphere and below the thermosphere.

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Fluids

Implies a flowing of any material, from gases to highly viscous magma, to something that usually is solid but may be mobilized by heating.

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Stress

External forces acting on masses or along surfaces; forces include shear, tension, and compression.

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Strain

A change in the form for size of the body due to external forces.

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Elastic

Behavior of material whereby stress causes the deformation that is recoverable; when stress stops, material returns to its original state.

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Ductile

Behavior of material whereby stress causes permanent flow or strain.

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Brittle

Behavior of material whereby stress causes abrupt fracture.

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Plastic

The behavior of a material that flows as a fluid (liquid) over time, but is strong (solid) at a moment in time.

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Yield stress

The stress difference at which permanent deformation first occurs.

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Element

Distinct varieties of matter; and atom is the smallest particle of an element.

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Isostasy

The condition of flotational equilibrium wherein the earth's crust floats upward or downward as loads are removed or added.

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Buoyancy

The quality being able to float, usually on water or rock.

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Acre foot

A measure of water volume in which 1 acre of surface is covered 1 foot deep. (An acre is about 90% of the area between the goal lines on the football field.)

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Radioactive isotopes

Unstable element containing excess subatomic particles that are admitted to achieve a smaller, stable atom.

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Half-life

The length of time needed for half of a radioactive sample to lose it's radioactivity via decay.

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Tidal friction

Gravitational attraction between earth, moon, and sun stretches the solid mass of the earth and converts some energy from Earth's rotation into heat.

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Tectonic cycle

New lithosphere forms at oceanic volcanic ridges, the lithospheric plates spread apart to open ocean basins, and then the oceanic plates are reabsorbed into the mantle at subduction zones.

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Tectonics

The reformation and movement within the Earth's outer layers.

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Topography

The shape of Earth's surface both above and below sea level

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Seafloor spreading

Where tectonic plates pull apart, magma wells up and solidifies to create volcanic mountains, which in turn are pulled apart as new ocean floor.

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Subduction

The process of one lithospheric plate descending beneath another one.

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Plates

A piece of lithosphere that moves atop the asthenosphere. There are a dozen large plates and many smaller ones.

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Plate tectonics

The description of the movements of plates and the effects of plate formation, collision, subduction, and slide-past.

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Divergence zones

A linear zone formed where plates pull apart, as at a spreading center.

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Continental drift

The movement of continents across the face of the earth, including their splitting apart and recombining into new continents.

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Gondwanaland

A southern super-continent that included South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, and India during Jurassic time.

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Transform faults

A strike-slip fault that connects the ends of two offset segments of plate edges, such as spreading centers or subduction zones.

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Convergence zone

A linear area where plates collide and move closer together. This is a zone of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, and deep-ocean trenches.

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Magnetic field

A region where magnetic forces affect any magnetized bodies or electric currents. Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field.

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Pangaea

A supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic time when all the continents were unified into a single landmass.

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Magnetic pole

The point where Earth's magnetic field flows back into the ground. Currently, this point is near the North Pole.

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Latitude

Flat lines across Earth.

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Magnetism

A group of physical phenomena associated with moving electricity.

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Lava

Magma that flows that flows on the Earth's surface.

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Curie point

The temperature above which a mineral will not be magnetic.

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Ridge

A volcanic mountain range that lies along the spreading centers on the floors of the oceans.

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Epicenters

The point on the surface of the Earth directly above a fault movement. (i.e., earthquake location)

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Hot spot

A place on Earth where a plume of magma has risen upward from the mantle and through a plate to reach the surface.

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Plume

An arm of magma rising upward from the mantle.

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Fossil

Evidence of former life, including bones, shells, teeth, leaves, and footprints.

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Spreading center

The site where plates pull apart and magma flows out onto the surface.

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Trench

The elongate and narrow troughs where ocean water can be more than twice as deep as usual. Trenches mark the down-going edges of subducting plates.

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Reef

An organism-built structure or current-deposited mound of CaCO3 material (limestone).

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Laurasia

A northern supercontinent that included most of North America, Greenland,Europe, and Asia (excluding India) from about 180 to 75 million years ago.

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Panthalassa

A massive, single ocean that occupied 60% of Earth's surface in late Paleozoic time.

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Convection

A process of heat transfer whereby hot material at depth rises upward due to its lower density while cooler material above sinks because of its higher density.

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Uniformitarianism

The concept that the same laws and processes operating on and within Earth throughout geologic time are the same laws and processes operating today.

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Actualism

Using the actual processes operating on Earth today to interpret the past; not inventing unrecognized processes to explain the past.

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Magma

.

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Igneous rock

Rock formed by the solidification (crystallization) of magma.

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Magma

Molten or liquid rock material. It crystallizes (solidifies) on the Earth's surface as volcanic rock and at depth as plutonic rock.

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Nuclear fission

Splitting the nucleus of an atom, with the resultant release of energy, neutrons, and large daughter products.

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Sediment

Fragments of material of either inorganic or organic origin.

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What is the most widely accepted hypothesis for the origin of the solar system? Who made it up?

It formed by growth of the Sun and planets through collisions of matter within a rotating cloud of gas and dust. Kant.

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What are the two main constituents of the Sun?

Hydrogen and Helium

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What is the impact origin of the moon?

There was an impact with early earth and a Mars size body. Impact created a large cloud of dust and vapor which condensed and accumulated to form the moon.

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Where did the heat that transformed earth come from?

Impact energy, decay of radioactive isotopes, gravitational energy, and differentiation into layers.

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How does increase in temperature affect rock?

Causes rock to expand in volume and become less dense and more capable of flowing under pressure and in response to gravity.

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How does increase in pressure affect rock?

Causes rock to decrease in volume and become more dense and more rigid.