Vocab: Test 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab: Test 1 Deck (79):
1

maebyeong

a type of broad-shouldered vessel

1

underglaze

surface decorations on a ceramic object created by an artist painting patterns or pictorial images using a mineral pigment glaze suspended in water laced with a binder substance, then covered with a clear overglaze and fired

2

The Noble Eight-fold Path

1. Right understanding (wisdom)2. Right intention (wisdom)3. Right speech (one's ethical conduct)4. Right action (one's ethical conduct)5. Right livelihood (one's ethical conduct)6. Right effort (meditation; mental discipline)7. Right mindfulness (meditation; mental discipline)8. Right concentration (meditation; mental discipline)

2

jatakas

scenes from the last life and past lives of the Buddha

3

Siddhartha Gautama

the Buddha (Enlightened One), born ca. 486-400 BCE

3

literati

artists who were also scholars and came from the nobility, creating courtly works

4

Chaitya hall

a hall carved from living rock with a stupa positioned in the apse end

4

iron-wire line

contour lines that define the silhouettes of forms in Chinese paintings achieved by applying uniform pressure to the brush

5

varada

the mudra of bestowing where one hand is lowered with fingers pointing downward

5

mandapas

sacred halls leading to the garbha griha at a Hindu temple

6

linga

an image of a phallus or pillar representing the god Shiva, it was a permanent object in aShiva temple

7

bitumen

similar to asphalt, it is a naturally occurring black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons useful as a waterproof mortar

7

chakra

a wheel, representing the Buddha's law

7

Krishna

blue-skinned Hindu god who embodies love and celestial joy and instigates all types ofknowledge

8

Vishnu

many-armed Hindu god who assumes many avatars when he intervenes in human affairsto balance good and evil. His 9th incarnation is the Buddha.

9

garbha griha

a Hindu temple's dimly lit cave-like "womb chamber" where one finds Hindu cult statues and sacred art; only Brahmin priests may enter them to offer sacrifices

11

mudras

hand gestures used to express the mood and meaning of images of Hindu, Jian or Buddhist divinities

12

Sinosphere

regions encompassed under heavy Chinese influence

12

colophon

texts written on strips of silk or paper attached to a painting or drawing

13

boss

a circular knob

14

meiping

a ceramic vessel with a high shoulder design

15

karma

the quality of one's actions influencing the outcome of the next rebirth to high or lowstatus (from animal to deity, it depended on whether your Karma was good or bad)

15

yakshi (masculine: yaksha)

a sexually robust, youthful adult female (or male figure) that symbolizes the creative force of reproduction

17

dhyana

the mudra of meditation where a seated figure has palms upward and placed one on the other in the sitter's lap

17

Chan Buddhism (aka Zen Buddhism)

a form of Buddhism that emphasizes attainment of enlightenment via meditation (chan, alternately, zen) where one path is assiduous and requires years of meditation and the other is sudden and enlightenment may arbitrarily arrive instantly with great clarity

17

arcuated

of arch construction

19

Mahadeva

Hindi for Great God, or Lord of Lords, image type for portraying Shiva with 3 or 4 faces

20

mandorla

(mandorla: Italian for almond) halo or nimbus that emanates from a body, sometimes almond shaped

22

harmika

a square space set aside to symbolize the holy territory of the deities atop a stupa

23

minqi

“spirit” burial articles in the form of effigy servants, guards, fantastic creatures or animals interred with the dead

24

porcelain

a type of ceramic composed of kaolin and feldspar fired at around 2000º

25

moulage

matrix into which a seal is pressed to raise an impression

25

mandala

a sacred diagram of the universe

27

urna

a curling lock of hair represented by a dainty dot between the eyebrows symbolizing theBuddha's divine wisdom

28

The Four Noble Truths

1. Life is suffering2. Suffering is caused by desire/attachment3. Desire can be extinguished and suffering will end4. To reach this liberated state, one follows the Noble Eightfold Path

28

dharma wheel

also called the wheel of the law - a visual representation of the Eight-fold path asa wheel with 8 spokes, one for each of the path's components

29

Amitabha Buddhism (Japanese: Amida)

form of Japanese Buddhism also known as Pure Land Buddhism whereby rebirth in a western Pure Land by the grace of the Amitabha Buddha nirvana may be achieved

31

amalaka

a ribbed cushion shaped carved stone capping a shikhara reminiscent of the amala fruit

32

samsara

cycle of death and rebirth changing the status of the individual in accordance with the type of life one lived previously

33

chattra

"axis mundi" parasol symbol of protection from suffering, desire, and spirituallydestructive forces; it also symbolizes how a mountain upholds the dome of the sky

33

Gita Govinda

the "Song of the Cow Herd", an epic chronicle of the amorous adventures of Krishna and young lady cow herders or gopis

34

yasti

a tall pole arising from a harmika linking the heavens and earth as an axis or "axis mundi"

35

Shakyamuni

"the sage of the Shakyas", the historical Buddha

36

rathas

chariots or vehicles for deities

38

guang

lidded bronze ritual wine vessel used in funerary rites for pouring libations

39

abhaya

the mudra of protection where the hand is raised to face the worshipper meaning "donot fear"

41

sgraffito

ceramic design wherein imagery is incised through a colored slip before firing

43

courtesy name

coming of age name given or adopted by a young adult to signify a person’s status and respectability

45

shaykh

white-bearded holy man

46

toranas

gates at a stupa that mark the 4 cardinal directions

47

The 4 formats of Chinese paintings on silk or paper

1. hanging scroll- vertical rolls that may be taken out of a drawer where they are stored and hung up for display and conversation about the work, sometimes around food and drink2. handscroll- long, narrow rotolus scrolls that are unrolled horizontally to reveal a succession of scenes viewed from right to left3. album leaf- small individual paintings on paper gathered into albums, best viewed by one or two people at a time4. fan- this unusual format exploits the blank round or folded arched surface of fans for pictorial space

47

lalitasana

the mudra signifying a relaxed attitude

48

contrapposto

the natural weight shift of the body as it stands or strides

49

shikhara

beehive-like tower of a northern Hindu temple

50

mithunas

pairs of humans portrayed in rapturous sexual embraces

51

lakshanas

iconic symbols that characterize images of the Buddha

53

cenotaph

a false tomb

55

kaolin

a type of fine grained clay used in the production of porcelain

56

Social Realism

artistic style heavily reliant on naturalistic representation promoted by the Marxist founders of the People’s Republic of China and featuring propagandistic themes

57

darshan

Hindu custom of viewing images of their deities

58

Devi

Hindu goddess who both creates and destroys and the mother of Ganesha, she is also a consort to male gods: paired with Shiva she is his wife Uma or Parvati; paired with Vishnu she is Lakshmi; paired with Krishna she is Radha

60

dharmachakra

the mudra of preaching where both hands join fingers in a complex gesture that recall the Buddha's first sermon

61

cizhou

a style of ceramics that originated in Northern China

62

positioning perspective

pictorial device where objects placed higher up in the composition are meant to be perceived as further back in space

63

ahimsa

the principle of non-violence towards all living things

64

gopis

young lady cow herders who consort with Krishna

65

Moksha or Nirvana

a person's ultimate goal - escaping the repeated cycle of birth-death-rebirth by uniting the individual self with the source of the universe

67

craquelure

crazed network of tiny cracks fracturing the surface of ceramic glaze

68

stupa

a Buddhist shrine shaped as a half dome mound

69

sancai

a three color ceramic glaze popularized in the Tang Dynasty, literally “three colors”

70

miniatum

red pigment used in painting miniatures; hence the name miniature

71

vimana

stepped pyramid tower on a Hindu temple

72

rubbings

drawings created by placing a sheet of paper over a low relief and rubbing the flat side of a charcoal piece evenly over the paper, thus transferring a negative of the design to the paper

73

Shiva

Hindu god of destruction and regeneration, sometimes appearing in the guise of the Lordof the Dance (Nataraja) tramping the dwarf of ignorance

74

celadonware

pale green, olive, blue or brown glassy, translucent glaze

75

ushnisha

a cranial bump symbolizing divine knowledge

77

pietra dura

decorative stonework technique where semi-precious and precious stones are inlaidin marble

78

bhumisparsha

mudra of calling the world to attend to the Buddha's enlightenment where his left hand reaches down to the ground

79

tribhanga

exaggerated posture of the body posed to bend in three places - the head and lowerlimbs angled together with the torso angled in the opposite way - achieving a sense ofswaying movement