Vocab: Test 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocab: Test 1 Deck (42):
1

Neolithic

new stone age dated 8000-2300 BCE

1

mastaba

Arabic word for “bench”, rectangular structure with sloping sides erected over a tomb shaft

2

diagnostics of style

comparison of characteristics between two or more objects or artifacts that are somewhat similar in order to diagnose the style

2

sympathetic magic

an attempt to understand or exert influence over natural forces by means of a crude cause and effect activity (e.g, to cause fertility, a figure is crafted of a fecund human, typically a female to effect actual childbirth)

2

polychromed

painted in two or more colors

3

cromlech

a ring of monumental stones

3

ziggurat

monumental platform upon which a temple is built, typically made of mud brick

4

yardang

a long, irregular ridge with a sharp crest sited between two round-bottomed troughs carved out by wind erosion in a desert region

5

hieratic/hierarchical proportions

presentation of the most significant figure in a composition on a larger scale than surrounding figures

5

ka

Egyptian for “life force”

6

stratum dating

method of dating artifacts based upon dating the organic material contained in the strata associated with those artifacts

8

ground line

a baseline on which figures appear to stand

8

nemes

pleated cloth headdress worn by pharaohs that covers the head and drapes over the chest

10

recto

“front” side of an object, typically a page or a relief

10

verso

“back” or reverse side of an object, typically a page or a relief

11

clerestory

fenestrated level of a building rising above the roofs of adjacent parts

12

Mesolithic

middle stone age dated 9000-7000 BCE

14

hieroglyph

Greek word meaning “sacred writing”, refers to Egyptian writing using symbols or pictures

17

Chauvet Cave

location of the presumably oldest known cave paintings, found in the Ardéche region of France and discovered by Jean-Marie Chauvet and his companions December 24, 1994

18

optical representation

portraying humans and objects from a fixed vantage point or orientation of the viewer

19

ashlar

carefully and regularly shaped masonry stones

20

henge

megalithic stones arranged in a circle, often surrounded by a ditch

21

lamassu

guardian figure in the form of a human-headed bull or lion with wings

22

composite view

like twisted perspective but associated with the human form, mixing frontal and profile perspectives in order to depict body parts in their most recognizable forms. (aka: conceptual representation)

23

Carbon-14 dating

a method of measuring an object’s radioactive half-life to determine its age, pioneered by Willard Libby

24

twisted perspective

a convention of representation in which part of an animal is seen in profile and another part of the same figure frontally

25

sarcophagus

Greek for “flesh eater”, an elaborate coffin

26

Paleolithic

old stone age dated 30,000-9000 BCE

27

cella

an enclosed chamber usually of a sanctuary or temple

28

necropolis

Greek for “city of the dead”, refers to cemeteries and burial spaces

29

stele/stela

carved stone slab for marking graves or commemorating historical events

30

cartouche

an oval with a horizontal line at one end, signaling that the name it contains is royal

31

ka statue

a statue of the deceased placed in the tomb to serve as an alternate abode for the ka should the mummy fail to survive

33

Civilization characteristics

1. systemic agriculture
2. government/rule of law
3. formal religion
4. writing
5. measurement/calculation
6. ceramic and metal object production
7. specialized division of labor

33

trilithon

a megalithic structure consisting of two upright stones and a third across the top as a lintel.

35

blind arcade

an arcade having no real openings, used to decorate a wall’s surface

36

conceptual representation

like twisted perspective but associated with the human form, mixing frontal and profile perspectives in order to depict body parts in their most recognizable forms. (aka: composite view)

37

Community of concepts for Paleolithic art

1. overlapping of animals
2. animals in profile and running or standing
3. renderings are naturalistic, despite no handy models to imitate
4. art depicts subsistence animals primarily but not exclusively
5. few humans are depicted
6. shape of a rock may suggest an animal to the creator
7. animals are depicted in twisted perspective

38

relief sculpture

figures projecting from a background of which they are a part

39

hypostyle hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns

41

trabeated

of post and lintel construction

42

Book of the Dead

a scroll containing some 200 spells interred with the mummy to protect the ka in the next life. The title is better translated as “the book of going forth by day”