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Anatomy & Physiology I > Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (155):
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A bands

The dark, thick bands of the protein myosin in muscle cells

1

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Second subdivision of the ventral cavity that contains the kidneys, stomach, liver and gallbladder, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, and the ovaries and uterus (in women)

2

Abducens Nerve VI

Controls movement of the eyeball

3

Abduction

Movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body

4

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Muscle that abducts little toe

5

Abductor Hallucis

Muscle that abducts, flexes great toe

6

Abductor Pollicis

Muscle that abducts the thumb

7

Accessory Nerve XI

Helps control swallowing and movements of the head

8

Acetabulum

Deep socket in the lateral side of the hipbone just above the obturator foramen

9

Acetaldehyde

An intermediate product of fermentation

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Acetic Acid

An intermediate product of the citric acid cycle

11

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter substance

12

Acetylcholinesterase

An enzyme in the postsynaptic neutron that breaks down acetylcholine

13

Acetyl-CoA

An intermediate product of the citric acid cycle

14

Acid

A substance that dissociates and forms an excess of H ions when dissolved in water

15

Acidosis

A condition caused by lowering of blood pH

16

Acid Rain

Rain with a high acid concentration resulting from pollutants emitted from cars and coal-fired power plants

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Acromial Process

Bony prominence on the scapula

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Actin

Thin filaments of protein in a muscle cell

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Action Potential

When a muscle generates its own impulse to contract

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Active Transport

Mechanism requiring energy by which cells acquire materials against a concentration gradient

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Addison's Disease

Condition in which the adrenal cortex fails to produce enough hormones

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Adduction

Movement of a bone or limb toward the midline of the body

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Adductor Pollicis

Muscle that adducts the thumb

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Adenine

A purine nitrogen base

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

High-energy fuel molecule the cell needs to function

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Adipose

Loose connective tissue full of fat cells

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Adrenal Cortex

Outermost part of the adrenal gland

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Adrenal Glands

Small glands found on top of each kidney; suprarenal glands

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Adrenal Medulla

Inner part of the adrenal gland

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Adrenaline

A neurotransmitter also called epinephrine used by the autonomic nervous system; a hormone

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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete the hormone cortisol

32

Adrenogenital Syndrome

Excessive secretion of androgens producing male characteristics in females and an early enlarged penis in young males

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Aerobic

Requires oxygen

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Afferent Peripheral System

Consists of adherent or sensory neurons that convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord

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Agonists

Muscles performing the actual movement

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Albinism

The absence of skin colour

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Aldosterone

Hormone that regulates sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys

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Aldosteronism

Excessive aldosterone causing high blood pressure

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All-Or-None Law

A contraction or nervous transmission either occurs or does not occur

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Alpha Cells

Secrete the hormone glucagon

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Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid

An intermediate product of the citric acid cycle

42

Alveolus

A socket for articulation with a tooth

43

Amine Group

NH2 found in amino acids

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Ammonia

Molecule that comes from the decomposition of proteins via the digestive process, and the conversion of amino acids in cellular respiration to ATP molecules

45

Amphiarthroses

Joints that allow only slight movement

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Anabolism

An energy-requiring process that builds larger molecules by combining smaller molecules

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Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

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Anaphase

Third and shortest stage of mitosis

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Anaphase I

Stage of meiosis in which the centromere does not divide

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Anaphase II

Stage of meiosis in which the centromeres of the chromosomes divide

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Anatomy

The study of the structure and organization of the body

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Anconeus

Muscle that extends the forearm

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Androgens

Male sex hormones

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Antagonists

Muscles that relax while the agonist contracts

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Anterior

Toward the front

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Anterior (Ventral) Gray Horn

Part of the spinal cord

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Anterior (Ventral) Root

Point of attachment of the spinal nerve to the cord, also known as the motor root

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Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Maintains the body's water balance; vasopressin

59

Aponeurosis

Wide and flat tendon

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Aqueous Humor

Fluid in the anterior compartment of the eye located in front of the lens

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Arachnoid Mater

The middle spinal or cranial meninx

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Areolar

A type of loose connective tissue

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Arrector Pili Muscle

Consists of smooth muscle fibres attached to a hair follicle that causes the goose flesh appearance on the skin when we get scared or get a chill

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Articulation

A place of junction between two or more bones

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Aster

A starburst cluster of microtubules of tubulin produced by the centriole

66

Astrocytes

Star-shaped cells that twine around nerve cells to form a supporting network in the brain and spinal cord

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Atlas

First cervical vertebra that supports the head by articulation with the condyles of the occipital bone

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Atom

The smallest particle of an element that maintains all the characteristics of that element

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Atomic Number

The number of protons or electrons in an atom

70

Auditory Ossicles

Another name for the ear bones

71

Auditory Tubes

The ear canals located in the middle ear that equalize air pressure preventing hearing distortion; eustachian tubes

72

Auricle

External appendage of an atrium

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Autolysis

The process of self-destruction in old or weakened cells

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to smooth muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and glands

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Axis

The second vertebra

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Axon

The long extension of a nerve cell body; a neuron has only one axon

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Axon Endings

The terminal portions of axons

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Axon Terminals

The endings of axons

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Ball-and-socket Joint

A type of synovial or diarthrosis joint, also called a multiaxial joint, like the shoulder or hip joint

80

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Most common type of skin cancer

81

Base

A substance that combines with H+ ions when dissolved in water

82

Basement Membrane

Anchors epithelial cells to each other and to underlying tissues

83

Beta Cells

Secrete the hormone insulin, found in the pancreas

84

Biceps Brachii

Muscle that flexes the arm and forearm and supinates the hand

85

Biceps Femoris

Muscle that flexes the leg; rotates laterally after flexed

86

Bipolar Neurons

Sensory neurons that consist of one dendrite and one axon

87

Blood

Specialized connective tissue

88

Bonds

Formed when atoms combine chemically with one another

89

Bone

Specialized connective tissue

90

Brachialis

Muscle that flexes the forearm, assists the biceps muscle

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Brachioradialis

Muscle that flexes the forearm, assists the biceps muscle

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Brainstem

One of the four major parts of the brain; it connects the brain to the spinal cord

93

Brownian Movement

The random collision of diffusing molecules

94

Buccinator

Muscle that compresses the cheek

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Buffer

A substance that acts as a reservoir for hydrogen ions

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Bursae

Closed sacs with a synovial membrane lining

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Calcaneus

The heel

98

Calcitonin

Hormone secreted by the thyroid that lowers the calcium and phosphate ion concentration of the blood

99

Callus

A thickened area of skin development from an excessive amount of friction

100

Calorie

Unit used to measure energy

101

Canaliculi

Small canals in compact bone that connect lacunae with one another

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Cancellous bone

Forms the inner spongy tissue underneath compact bone

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Capitate

One of the bones of the wrist

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Carbohydrate

Made of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

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Carbon Dioxide

Chemical produced as a waste product of cellular respiration

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Carboxyl Group

The COOH group found in amino acids and fatty acids

107

Carcinogens

Cancer-causing agents

108

Carcinomas

Tumors developing from epithelial tissue

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Cardiac Muscle

Muscle found only in the heart

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Cardiovascular System

Body system consisting of the heart and vessels that pump and distribute blood to and from all cells

111

Carotene

A carotenoid pigment in plant cells that produces a red-orange color

112

Carpals

Bones of the wrist

113

Cartilage

A type of specialized connective tissue

114

Catabolism

An energy-releasing process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones

115

Catalyst

Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being affected that reaction

116

Caudal

Synonymous with inferior; toward the tail

117

Cell Body

Contains the nucleus of a neuron

118

Cell Cycle

Process by which a cell divides in two and duplicates its genetic material

119

Cell Plate

First stage of a new cell wall forming at the equator of a dividing plant cell

120

Cellular Respiration/Metabolism

The energy changes that occur in cells

121

Cellulose

Carbohydrate material that makes the cell wall of plant cells, fiber in our diet

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

Consists of the brain and spinal cord

123

Centrioles

Two centrioles make up a centrosome; they produce spindle fibers during cell division

124

Centromere

Portion of a duplicated chromosome that holds the two daughter chromatids together

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Centrosome

Area near the nucleus made of two centrioles

126

Cephalad

Toward the head

127

Cerebellum

Second largest portion of the brain concerned with coordinating skeletal muscle movements and balance

128

Cerebral Aqueduct

Connects the third and fourth ventricles of the brain; also called aqueduct of Sylvius

129

Cerebral Cortex

Surface of the cerebrum

130

Cerebral Hemispheres

The right and left halves of the cerebrum

131

Cerebrum

The bulk of the brain consisting of two cerebral hemispheres

132

Cerumen

Earwax

133

Ceruminous Glands

Glands that produce earwax

134

Cervical Vertebrae

The seven smallest vertebrae found in the neck

135

Chiasmata

Figures of chromosomes during crossing-over

136

Chief Cells

1. Secreting cells of the parathyroid glands
2. In the stomach secrete pepsinogen; also known as zymogenic cells

137

Chloroplasts

Organelles found only in plant cells where photosynthesis occurs; contain the pigment chlorophyll

138

Chondrocytes

Cells of cartilage

139

Choroid

The second layer of the wall of the eye containing blood vessels and pigment cells

140

Chromatids

Duplicated copies of a chromosome

141

Chromatin

Term used to describe the genetic material inside a nucleus before duplication

142

Chromoplasts

Plastids in plant cells that contain the carotenoid pigments

143

Cilia

Small hairs found on cells that function in movement of materials across the cell's outer surface

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Ciliary Body

Consists of smooth muscles that hold the lens of the eye in place

145

Circumduction

Moving the bone in such a way so that the end of the bone or limb describes a circle in the air and the sides of the bone describe a cone in the air

146

Cisternae

Cavities of an endoplasmic reticulum that are sac or channel-like

147

Citric Acid

An intermediate product of the citric acid cycle

148

Clavicle

Collar bone

149

Cleavage Furrow

Pinching in of an animal cell membrane during cell division

150

Clones

Exact duplicates

151

Co Enzyme A

Converts acetic acid to acetyl-CoA

152

Coccygeal Vertebrae/Coccyx

The vertebrae of the tailbone

153

Collagen

A tough fiber found in the matrix of connective tissue

154

Columnar Epithelium

Epithelial cells that are tall and rectangular; found lining the ducts of certain glands and in mucous-secreting tissues