Vocabulary 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vocabulary 4 Deck (100):
1

dictum
/ˈdiktəm/

n. a short statement that expresses a general truth or principle (格言)

“But Lorimer's dictum [that subscriptions are primarily "sales promotion" to get advertising revenue.”] later became an article of the faith for American publishers”

2

countervail
/ˌkountərˈvāl/

v. offset the effect of (something) by countering it with something of equal force

“who makes sure that no one else can become a threat by organizing countervailing officials, bureaucratic factions, and competing personal networks.”.

3

adj. 1. abundant in supply or quantity. 2. profuse in speech or ideas

1. “reports had been copiously annotated and commented upon in the margin in Luce's hand.” 2. I had been a little too copious in talking of my country.

copious
/ˈkōpēəs/

3

n. 1. mass of small rounded pebbles, esp. on a seashore (圓卵石). 2. rectangular tile of asphalt composite, wood, metal, or slate (石板) used on walls or roofs.

“to be picked as the subject of a Fortune story was considered by most managements to be a noisome affliction, on a par with an attack of the shingles.”

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shingle
/ˈSHiNGgəl/

3

n. an expert or connoisseur

The Goop maven [Gwyneth Paltrow] rocks a pink Valentino dress with Wilfredo Rosado earrings for the Met Gala; fashion mavens.

maven
/ˈmāvən/

4

n. 1. enjoyment or vigor in doing something; zest.(津津有味) 2. a relish or liking (愛好)

1. He was in the middle of telling a tale with great gusto. 2. he had a particular gusto for those sort of performances

gusto
/ˈgəstō/

5

adj. lacking ease or grace; unsophisticated and socially awkward

If you crossed the room to talk to  [Alan Turing], you would have probably found him gauche and rather reserved.

gauche
/gōSH/

6

cum
/kəm

prep. combined with; also used as (used to describe things with a dual nature or function)

Such wondering, and meta-wondering, takes us to the heart of what geneticist-cum-neuroscientist Francis Crick (who would know) calls "the major unsolved problem in biology".

6

cul-de-sac
/ˈkʌldəˌsak/

n. blind alley: a street with only one way in or out (死路, 死胡同); a route or course leading nowhere.

I'm in a financial cul-de-sac.

6

n. blind alley: a street with only one way in or out (死路, 死胡同); a route or course leading nowhere.

I'm in a financial cul-de-sac.

cul-de-sac
/ˈkʌldəˌsak/

7

v. change in form, nature, or substance; subject (base metals) to alchemical transmutation

“The divorce of research and writing equally transmuted our piano and our dining room.”

transmute
/transˈmyo͞ot/

8

shingle
/ˈSHiNGgəl/

n. 1. mass of small rounded pebbles, esp. on a seashore (圓卵石). 2. rectangular tile of asphalt composite, wood, metal, or slate (石板) used on walls or roofs.

“to be picked as the subject of a Fortune story was considered by most managements to be a noisome affliction, on a par with an attack of the shingles.”

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8

adj. having a harmful effect, esp. in a gradual or subtle way

“the language implies that the world is more knowable than it is. It helps perpetuate a pernicious illusion.”

pernicious
/pərˈniSHəs/

10

saturnine
/ˈsatərˌnīn/

adj. (of a person or their manner) Slow and gloomy; (of a person or their features) Dark in coloring and moody or mysterious

“indeed Vladimir Bunin was the only male friend the saturnine and secretive Robert Mosell ever had.”

11

n. an anchored float serving as a navigation mark, to show reefs or other hazards, or for mooring.

These bright orange vinyl bouncing balls, two feet in diameter, with kangaroolike faces and handles that resembled horns, are said to have been inspired by children bouncing on fishing buoys in Norway

 

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buoy
/ˈbo͞o-ē/

11

1. bend or hang downward limply. 2. sag down from or as if from weariness or dejection. 3. cause to bend or hang downward

1. Tulips, tired and randomly arranged, droop from vases on nearby tables. 2. the scenes are so lengthy that the reader's spirits droop. 3. James hid his face in his hands and drooped his head.

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droop
/dro͞op/ 

12

grist
/grist/

n. useful material, esp. to back up an argument (also: 磨粉用穀物; 釀造用的碎麥芽)

“an improvement of a mere 10 percentage points over random guessing, hardly grist for the hero worship of CEOs we so often witness”

 

13

la-di-da
/ˌlä dē ˈdä/

adj. pretentious or snobbish, esp. in manner or speech

He was decidedly lah-di-dah, but the reserve wasn’t standoffishness.

13

attenuate
/əˈtenyo͞oˌāt/

v. 1. reduce the force, effect, or value of. 2. reduce the amplitude of (a signal, electric current, or other oscillation)

“In short, you responded to the disgusting word with an attenuated version of how you would react to the actual event.” (Kahneman)

14

v. feel a strong desire for or to do something

“It was no secret that Luce hankered after the London Embassy”

hanker
/ˈhaNGkər/

15

misanthrope
/ˈmisənˌTHrōp/

n. a person who dislikes humankind and avoids human society

Bruegel, Pieter the Elder, The Misanthrope 1568 oil on canvas.

16

discomfit
/disˈkəmfit/

v. make (someone) feel uneasy or embarrassed; n. (discomfiture) a feeling of unease or embarrassment; awkwardness

“Luce opposed McCarthy almost from the start much to the Eisenhower's administration discomfiture.

16

tanner
/ˈtanər/

n. a person who tans animal hides (獸皮; 皮革), esp. to earn a living (製革工人); (tan: convert (animal skin) into leather by soaking in a liquid containing tannic acid)

16

v. offset the effect of (something) by countering it with something of equal force

“who makes sure that no one else can become a threat by organizing countervailing officials, bureaucratic factions, and competing personal networks.”.

countervail
/ˌkountərˈvāl/

17

n. a person who tans animal hides (獸皮; 皮革), esp. to earn a living (製革工人); (tan: convert (animal skin) into leather by soaking in a liquid containing tannic acid)

tanner
/ˈtanər/

18

naiant
/ˈnāənt/

adj. (of a fish or marine creature) swimming horizontally

A silver trout naiant on a red and blue sea.

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19

pernicious
/pərˈniSHəs/

adj. having a harmful effect, esp. in a gradual or subtle way

“the language implies that the world is more knowable than it is. It helps perpetuate a pernicious illusion.”

19

n. any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles (小動脈) and venules (小靜脈) [毛細管]

When a crack occurs, the healing chemicals flow by capillary action to the crack

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capillary
/ˈkapəˌlerē/

20

skitter
/ˈskitər/

v. move lightly and quickly or hurriedly (飛掠而過)

1. “backed out of an editor's office and straight into something in the hall that skittered away.” 2. her mind skittered back to that day at the office.

20

v. fabricate imaginary experiences as compensation for loss of memory

Children and many adults confabulate when pressed to talk about something they have no knowledge of, and people do it during and after hypnosis.

confabulate
/kənˈfabyəˌlāt/

21

n. 1. A softer, usually edible part of a nut, seed, or fruit stone contained within its hard shell. 2. the central or most important part of something

“Any recent salient event is a candidate to become the kernel of a causal narrative”

kernel
/ˈkərnl/

22

v. 1. secure (a garment) with a belt. 2.cinch fix (a saddle) securely by means of a girth. 3. make certain of; n. n extremely easy task

1. A slim belt cinched her tiny waist, while a metallic clutch added. 2. The sheriff unbuckled the girth and pulled the cinch out from under the horse. 3. his advice cinched her decision to accept the offer.; 1. the program was a cinch to use

 

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cinch
/sinCH/

23

n. useful material, esp. to back up an argument (also: 磨粉用穀物; 釀造用的碎麥芽)

“an improvement of a mere 10 percentage points over random guessing, hardly grist for the hero worship of CEOs we so often witness”

 

grist
/grist/

24

confabulate
/kənˈfabyəˌlāt/

v. fabricate imaginary experiences as compensation for loss of memory

Children and many adults confabulate when pressed to talk about something they have no knowledge of, and people do it during and after hypnosis.

26

cosset
/ˈkäsət/

v. care for and protect in an overindulgent way

“Luce killed with kindness by overpaying and cosseting people.”

26

v. evade or avoid (an unwelcome duty or undertaking)

“But Eisenhower deftly ducked by appointing Luce's wife, Clare, former playwright and later Republican congress-woman”

duck
/dək/

27

insignia
/inˈsignēə/

1. a badge or distinguishing mark of military rank, office; an official emblem. 2. distinguishing mark or token of something

1. “Eight candidates, strangers to each other, with all insignia of rank removed”. 2. they left eternally inert (lacking vigor or strength) blooms, the insignia of melancholy

28

n. an effusively enthusiastic or ecstatic expression of feeling:

“a writer of rhapsodic prose that at its best could be deeply moving.” 

rhapsody
/ˈrapsədi/

29

v. make (someone) feel uneasy or embarrassed; n. (discomfiture) a feeling of unease or embarrassment; awkwardness

“Luce opposed McCarthy almost from the start much to the Eisenhower's administration discomfiture.

discomfit
/disˈkəmfit/

30

cinch
/sinCH/

v. 1. secure (a garment) with a belt. 2.cinch fix (a saddle) securely by means of a girth. 3. make certain of; n. n extremely easy task

1. A slim belt cinched her tiny waist, while a metallic clutch added. 2. The sheriff unbuckled the girth and pulled the cinch out from under the horse. 3. his advice cinched her decision to accept the offer.; 1. the program was a cinch to use

 

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31

adj. (of a person or their manner) Slow and gloomy; (of a person or their features) Dark in coloring and moody or mysterious

“indeed Vladimir Bunin was the only male friend the saturnine and secretive Robert Mosell ever had.”

saturnine
/ˈsatərˌnīn/

32

irradiate
/iˈrādēˌāt/

1. expose (food) to gamma rays to kill microorganisms. 2. illuminate (something) by or as if by shining light on it (照耀)

1. “Your emotional attitude to such things as irradiated food, red meat, nuclear power”. 2. sunlight streamed down through stained glass, irradiating the faces of family and friends.

34

rhapsody
/ˈrapsədi/

n. an effusively enthusiastic or ecstatic expression of feeling:

“a writer of rhapsodic prose that at its best could be deeply moving.” 

35

transmute
/transˈmyo͞ot/

v. change in form, nature, or substance; subject (base metals) to alchemical transmutation

“The divorce of research and writing equally transmuted our piano and our dining room.”

37

duck
/dək/

v. evade or avoid (an unwelcome duty or undertaking)

“But Eisenhower deftly ducked by appointing Luce's wife, Clare, former playwright and later Republican congress-woman”

38

v. 1. tinker with something in an attempt to make minor adjustments or improvements. 2. pass time aimlessly, without doing or achieving anything of substance

1. "I could fiddle (with) [financial statements] every which way long before you were born.” 2. Stop fiddling around and get to work.

 

fiddle
/ˈfidl/

39

v. move lightly and quickly or hurriedly (飛掠而過)

1. “backed out of an editor's office and straight into something in the hall that skittered away.” 2. her mind skittered back to that day at the office.

skitter
/ˈskitər/

41

unctuous
/ˈəNG(k)CHo͞oəs/

n. (of a person) excessively and ingratiatingly (intended to gain approval/favor) flattering; oily

“He was a martinet (strict disciplinarian) who could be very rough on subordinates. He always preached with great unction.”

43

exorbitant
/igˈzôrbitənt/

adj. (of a price or amount charged) Unreasonably high

“sold the Czar's armies poorly canned horsemeat as prime beef at exorbitant prices”

44

adj. too great or (emotionally) intense to be expressed in words

Really the pictures are ineffable to me, so the titles aren’t so much a verbal interpretation.

ineffable
/inˈefəbəl/

45

adj. (of a person) Not having much awareness of the realities of life, in particular, not motivated by material or practical considerations; spiritually minded; not of this earth or world

Beneath the cranky, craggy, irreverent exterior there was an unworldly innocence, though, as well as sensitivity and modesty.

unworldly
/ˌənˈwərldlē/

46

adj. pretentious or snobbish, esp. in manner or speech

He was decidedly lah-di-dah, but the reserve wasn’t standoffishness.

la-di-da
/ˌlä dē ˈdä/

47

n. conformity to facts; accuracy

“we called it representativeness—ignoring both the base rates and the doubts about the veracity of the description”

veracity
/vəˈrasətē/

47

n. a fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river

“Like watching a skilled rafter avoiding one potential calamity after another as he goes down the rapids”

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rapid
/ˈrapid/

49

kernel
/ˈkərnl/

n. 1. A softer, usually edible part of a nut, seed, or fruit stone contained within its hard shell. 2. the central or most important part of something

“Any recent salient event is a candidate to become the kernel of a causal narrative”

50

v. absorb or draw off (liquid) by capillary action

"thinx is leak and stain-resistant, anti-microbial, moisture wicking."

wick
/wik/

50

n. (of a person) excessively and ingratiatingly (intended to gain approval/favor) flattering; oily

“He was a martinet (strict disciplinarian) who could be very rough on subordinates. He always preached with great unction.”

unctuous
/ˈəNG(k)CHo͞oəs/

52

buoy
/ˈbo͞o-ē/

n. an anchored float serving as a navigation mark, to show reefs or other hazards, or for mooring.

These bright orange vinyl bouncing balls, two feet in diameter, with kangaroolike faces and handles that resembled horns, are said to have been inspired by children bouncing on fishing buoys in Norway

 

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54

beatitude
/bēˈatiˌt(y)o͞od/

n. supreme blessedness (至上的幸福)

“Once when I was sitting in his office listening to his favorite sermon on the beatitudes of decentralization”

55

v. 1. sit, lie, or fall with one's arms and legs spread out in an ungainly or awkward way; 2. spread out over a large area in an untidy or irregular way

1. I saw him sprawled on the floor, dead. 2. the town sprawled along several miles of cliff top

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sprawl
/sprôl/

57

hanker
/ˈhaNGkər/

v. feel a strong desire for or to do something

“It was no secret that Luce hankered after the London Embassy”

58

adj. (of a fish or marine creature) swimming horizontally

A silver trout naiant on a red and blue sea.

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naiant
/ˈnāənt/

60

stirrup
/ˈstərəp/ 

n. Each of a pair of devices attached to each side of a horse's saddle, in the form of a loop with a flat base to support the rider's foot (馬鐙)

Each stirrup on John's saddle had to be raised up when his son rode his horse.

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61

adj. vociferous people express their opinions and complaints loudly and repeatedly in speech, and vociferous demands, etc. are made repeatedly and loudly

former Communists on the Time staff who had turned vociferous "ex-commies,"

vociferous
/vōˈsifərəs/

62

v. 1. sit, lie, or stand in a lazy, relaxed way. 2. hang loosely, droop. 3. stick out (one's tongue) so that it hangs loosely out of the mouth.

1. the two girls lolled in their chairs. 2. he slumped against a tree trunk, his head lolling back. 3. the boy lolled out his tongue.

loll
/läl/

62

1. a badge or distinguishing mark of military rank, office; an official emblem. 2. distinguishing mark or token of something

1. “Eight candidates, strangers to each other, with all insignia of rank removed”. 2. they left eternally inert (lacking vigor or strength) blooms, the insignia of melancholy

insignia
/inˈsignēə/

63

1. expose (food) to gamma rays to kill microorganisms. 2. illuminate (something) by or as if by shining light on it (照耀)

1. “Your emotional attitude to such things as irradiated food, red meat, nuclear power”. 2. sunlight streamed down through stained glass, irradiating the faces of family and friends.

irradiate
/iˈrādēˌāt/

65

adj. (of a price or amount charged) Unreasonably high

“sold the Czar's armies poorly canned horsemeat as prime beef at exorbitant prices”

exorbitant
/igˈzôrbitənt/

66

fiddle
/ˈfidl/

v. 1. tinker with something in an attempt to make minor adjustments or improvements. 2. pass time aimlessly, without doing or achieving anything of substance

1. "I could fiddle (with) [financial statements] every which way long before you were born.” 2. Stop fiddling around and get to work.

 

66

vociferous
/vōˈsifərəs/

adj. vociferous people express their opinions and complaints loudly and repeatedly in speech, and vociferous demands, etc. are made repeatedly and loudly

former Communists on the Time staff who had turned vociferous "ex-commies,"

68

gauche
/gōSH/

adj. lacking ease or grace; unsophisticated and socially awkward

If you crossed the room to talk to  [Alan Turing], you would have probably found him gauche and rather reserved.

69

loll
/läl/

v. 1. sit, lie, or stand in a lazy, relaxed way. 2. hang loosely, droop. 3. stick out (one's tongue) so that it hangs loosely out of the mouth.

1. the two girls lolled in their chairs. 2. he slumped against a tree trunk, his head lolling back. 3. the boy lolled out his tongue.

70

rapid
/ˈrapid/

n. a fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river

“Like watching a skilled rafter avoiding one potential calamity after another as he goes down the rapids”

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71

v. care for and protect in an overindulgent way

“Luce killed with kindness by overpaying and cosseting people.”

cosset
/ˈkäsət/

72

n. a person who dislikes humankind and avoids human society

Bruegel, Pieter the Elder, The Misanthrope 1568 oil on canvas.

misanthrope
/ˈmisənˌTHrōp/

74

n. A woman who uses sexual attraction to exploit men; v. blatantly set out to attract

The video for its hit single “Criminal” presented her as a sulky, troubled vamp with a grown-up’s torchy voice.

vamp
/vamp/

75

adj. wicked and cruel

“Masha came and was told of Mr. Freedberg's dastardly proposal.”; pirates and their dastardly deeds.

dastardly
/ˈdastərdlē/

76

moor
/ˈmo͝or/

v. make fast (a vessel) to the shore or to an anchor; (of a boat) be made fast somewhere in this way

twenty or so fishing boats were moored to the pier

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77

dastardly
/ˈdastərdlē/

adj. wicked and cruel

“Masha came and was told of Mr. Freedberg's dastardly proposal.”; pirates and their dastardly deeds.

78

unworldly
/ˌənˈwərldlē/

adj. (of a person) Not having much awareness of the realities of life, in particular, not motivated by material or practical considerations; spiritually minded; not of this earth or world

Beneath the cranky, craggy, irreverent exterior there was an unworldly innocence, though, as well as sensitivity and modesty.

79

n. a short statement that expresses a general truth or principle (格言)

“But Lorimer's dictum [that subscriptions are primarily "sales promotion" to get advertising revenue.”] later became an article of the faith for American publishers”

dictum
/ˈdiktəm/

80

n. a harsh, grating noise; v. [with direct speech] say in a harsh, grating voice

the rasp of the engine; ‘Stay where you are!’ he rasped.

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rasp
/rasp/

81

copious
/ˈkōpēəs/

adj. 1. abundant in supply or quantity. 2. profuse in speech or ideas

1. “reports had been copiously annotated and commented upon in the margin in Luce's hand.” 2. I had been a little too copious in talking of my country.

82

v. make fast (a vessel) to the shore or to an anchor; (of a boat) be made fast somewhere in this way

twenty or so fishing boats were moored to the pier

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moor
/ˈmo͝or/

84

capillary
/ˈkapəˌlerē/

n. any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles (小動脈) and venules (小靜脈) [毛細管]

When a crack occurs, the healing chemicals flow by capillary action to the crack

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85

rasp
/rasp/

n. a harsh, grating noise; v. [with direct speech] say in a harsh, grating voice

the rasp of the engine; ‘Stay where you are!’ he rasped.

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86

adj. 1.difficult to do or needing a lot of effort (oppressively burdensome). 2. (Law) involving heavy obligations

the brain finds rehabilitating the injured side so onerous that it lets the healthy side take over.

onerous
/ˈōnərəs/ 

87

n. Each of a pair of devices attached to each side of a horse's saddle, in the form of a loop with a flat base to support the rider's foot (馬鐙)

Each stirrup on John's saddle had to be raised up when his son rode his horse.

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stirrup
/ˈstərəp/ 

88

gusto
/ˈgəstō/

n. 1. enjoyment or vigor in doing something; zest.(津津有味) 2. a relish or liking (愛好)

1. He was in the middle of telling a tale with great gusto. 2. he had a particular gusto for those sort of performances

89

vamp
/vamp/

n. A woman who uses sexual attraction to exploit men; v. blatantly set out to attract

The video for its hit single “Criminal” presented her as a sulky, troubled vamp with a grown-up’s torchy voice.

90

sprawl
/sprôl/

v. 1. sit, lie, or fall with one's arms and legs spread out in an ungainly or awkward way; 2. spread out over a large area in an untidy or irregular way

1. I saw him sprawled on the floor, dead. 2. the town sprawled along several miles of cliff top

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91

onerous
/ˈōnərəs/ 

adj. 1.difficult to do or needing a lot of effort (oppressively burdensome). 2. (Law) involving heavy obligations

the brain finds rehabilitating the injured side so onerous that it lets the healthy side take over.

93

prep. combined with; also used as (used to describe things with a dual nature or function)

Such wondering, and meta-wondering, takes us to the heart of what geneticist-cum-neuroscientist Francis Crick (who would know) calls "the major unsolved problem in biology".

cum
/kəm

94

veracity
/vəˈrasətē/

n. conformity to facts; accuracy

“we called it representativeness—ignoring both the base rates and the doubts about the veracity of the description”

95

ineffable
/inˈefəbəl/

adj. too great or (emotionally) intense to be expressed in words

Really the pictures are ineffable to me, so the titles aren’t so much a verbal interpretation.

96

n. supreme blessedness (至上的幸福)

“Once when I was sitting in his office listening to his favorite sermon on the beatitudes of decentralization”

beatitude
/bēˈatiˌt(y)o͞od/

97

maven
/ˈmāvən/

n. an expert or connoisseur

The Goop maven [Gwyneth Paltrow] rocks a pink Valentino dress with Wilfredo Rosado earrings for the Met Gala; fashion mavens.

98

wick
/wik/

v. absorb or draw off (liquid) by capillary action

"thinx is leak and stain-resistant, anti-microbial, moisture wicking."

99

v. 1. reduce the force, effect, or value of. 2. reduce the amplitude of (a signal, electric current, or other oscillation)

“In short, you responded to the disgusting word with an attenuated version of how you would react to the actual event.” (Kahneman)

attenuate
/əˈtenyo͞oˌāt/

100

droop
/dro͞op/ 

1. bend or hang downward limply. 2. sag down from or as if from weariness or dejection. 3. cause to bend or hang downward

1. Tulips, tired and randomly arranged, droop from vases on nearby tables. 2. the scenes are so lengthy that the reader's spirits droop. 3. James hid his face in his hands and drooped his head.

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