Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (68):
All of the elements (excluding mental) contained in a criminal offence.
Collection of info from cases. Basis of statistics if clear procedures used for handling data.
Dev. by Lombroso. Notion that some criminals are born criminals. Throwbacks to a earlier stage of evolution.
Used by Marx to refer to capital or ruling class.
Division of stats Can. (1981) w/ mandate to collect national data on crime and justice.
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics
enacted by Canada act 1982. Protection for wide range of individual rights. Cannot be changed w/o Parliament and provincial legislatures' consent.
(freedom of speech, rights to due process, etc)
Charter - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Laws passed by members of ruling class to maintain position and control others.
Class Conflict Theory
1st school of Criminology.
Advocated for rights, fairness, due process.
Beccaria, Bentham, Romilly were leaders.
bonding/interdependence resting on similar beliefs, activities, kinship, and cooperation among members of a community.
King resolving disputes in accordance w/ local custom. Also can be known as the body of judge-made law that has evolved in areas not covered by legislation.
Laws that represent the agreements of most ppl in society that certain acts should be prohibited.
Agreement by 2+ ppl to commit a criminal offence.
procuring, soliciting, inciting another person to commit a crime.
Consensus on how to count units and data elements. eg. Two assaults at same time is one offence or two?
Conduct prohibited by law and that is subject to penal sanction.
Taking amount of crime, dividing by population and then multiplying by a certain number (usually 100 000; 1 million for less common offences) to get the ______
When an individual does -or omits to do - anything for the purpose of carrying out a previously formed intention to commit a crime. Must be step towards said crime.
Body of jurisprudence containing definitions of crimes, penalties, principles regarding responsibility, and possible defences.
Legislation specifying procedures to be followed in prosecution of a criminal case and defines powers/scope of criminal justice officials in said case.
the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. Making/breaking laws, reacting to breaking laws, and the objective being to develop general principles regarding process of crime, law, and treatment.
prevention achieved through fear of punishment
amount of crime not reported or that is unknown. Victimization Surveys attempt to decrease it.
Dark Figure of Crime
Specification for what is to be collected.
Where ppl encounter one another in a variety of overlapping roles. Ppl continuously reminded of extensive bonds w/ others. Little specialization or separation in roles.
Diffuseness of Roles
Defence to criminal charge when accused was forced to commit crime as a consequence of threats of death or serious bodily harm made by another person.
Central farm owned by landlords where serfs would work the land and in turn give produce and payment to land owner. Declined as towns grew and monarchies became more prevalent.
specific area w/i a nation that is not subject to regulations and taxation normally imposed on business. (facilitate cross border production and trade)
Free Trade Zone
total amount of crime in a given community (no distinction b/w categories.
Gross Counts of Crime
theoretical construct which is abstracted from experience and brings together observed characteristics of real social relationships.
linked set of beliefs and ideas that act to uphold and justify an existing or desired situation in society.
Criminal offence committed whereby a person attempts to commit a crime but is unsuccessful in doing so.
Can be a criminal defence if it prevents the person from forming the intent required for a specific intent offence, such as murder or robbery.
An act that violates criminal law and is punishable with jail, fine, an other sanctions.
Legal Definition of Crime
How data are combined. (city level, provincial, national data, etc)
Levels of Aggregation
Criminal Intent. Mental Elements contained in the definition of a criminal offence.
study or critique of methods.
a defence where the person accused acts under the influence of an honest mistake in relation to any of the elements of the acteus reus of the offence charged
Mistake of Fact
Dominant form of social and technical organization of economic production in society. Variety of modes can be distinguished.
Mode of Production
a special verdict where the accused must lack the capacity to appreciate the nature and quality of the act or omission in question.
NCRMD (not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder)
a defence when the accused commits the lesser evil of a crime in order to avoid the occurrence of a greater evil.
Established rules of behaviour or standards of conduct
Part of mens rea based on determination of whether a reasonable person in same situation would have appreciated the risk involved in the accused conduct and taken measures to avoid
Objective Mens Rea
political system similar to kingdom that brings together a number of partly autonomous villages/communities under the hierarchical rule of a grand chief
If one commits, aids/abets it, becomes a _________ by virtue of having formed a common intention w/ those actually committing the crime.
Party to a Crime
All members in a given class/set
First scientific school by Lombroso. Agreed w/ positivism and argued that criminality is determined and that criminology should search for these causes. Believed this would allow for effective treatment.
a partial defence to a charge of murder. Required elements are: 1. accused responded to a wrongful act/insult that would have caused person to lose self control 2. accused acted suddenly before passion could cool.
Arise under legislation (prov, fed, ter.) which regulates inherently legitimate activities connected w/ trade, commerce and industry or with everyday life. Not serious in nature, usually minor penalties.
Consistency of the results over time.
group of elements selected in a systematic manor from the population of interest
permitted in certain circumstances as a defence. Had to act w/o intending to inflict death, or harm and that no more force than necessary was used.
A measure of crime involving a detailed questionnaire to a sample asking whether they have commited a crime in a specific period. good for determining social characteristics of offenders
Several crimes committed in one incident then only the most serious is counted
Institution that claims the exclusive right to legitimate exercise of force in a given territory w/ the use of police, laws, and army to maintain order.
Explore the structure of emerging societies with assistance of statistical methods.
Quetelet + Guerry
Physical signs of some special moral position (used by Lombroso w/ atavism)
elements of mens rea if based on a determination of what went on in the accused person's mind. Includes intention, knowledge, recklessness, wilful blindness.
Subjective Mens Rea
Excess of production. Exceeding immediate subsistence needs, contributed to social inequality and class division.
A set of concepts and nominal definitions or assertions about relationships between these concepts/assumptions/knowledge claims.
Corporation having sales and production in many different nations. Often thought to be beyond political control of any one nation.
Social Bonds based primarily on ppl's real/assumed common descent/ancestry. Distinguishes them from other ppl.
when an individual engages in conduct that is not only prohibited but also constitutes a serious breach of community values. Often perceived as inherently wrong.
Period of English History from Owen Tudor (1485) to Henry V (1603)
Stats Canada publications on standardized procedures for collecting and reporting crime information.
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
Whether or not a tool or concept actually measures that which it intends to.
Collective idea about what is right or wrong, good or bad, in a particular culture.
Random Sample of ppl asked to recall and describe own experiences of being victims of crime. (whether reported the crime, and other related aspects)