Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Criminology > Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vocabulary Deck (68):
1

All of the elements (excluding mental) contained in a criminal offence.

Acteus Reus

2

Collection of info from cases. Basis of statistics if clear procedures used for handling data.

Administrative Record

3

Dev. by Lombroso. Notion that some criminals are born criminals. Throwbacks to a earlier stage of evolution.

Atavism

4

Used by Marx to refer to capital or ruling class.

Bourgeois Class/Bourgeoisie

5

Division of stats Can. (1981) w/ mandate to collect national data on crime and justice.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics

6

enacted by Canada act 1982. Protection for wide range of individual rights. Cannot be changed w/o Parliament and provincial legislatures' consent.
(freedom of speech, rights to due process, etc)

Charter - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

7

Laws passed by members of ruling class to maintain position and control others.

Class Conflict Theory

8

1st school of Criminology.
Advocated for rights, fairness, due process.
Beccaria, Bentham, Romilly were leaders.

Classical School

9

bonding/interdependence resting on similar beliefs, activities, kinship, and cooperation among members of a community.

Collective Solidarity

10

King resolving disputes in accordance w/ local custom. Also can be known as the body of judge-made law that has evolved in areas not covered by legislation.

Common Law

11

Laws that represent the agreements of most ppl in society that certain acts should be prohibited.

Consensus Theory

12

Agreement by 2+ ppl to commit a criminal offence.

Conspiracy

13

procuring, soliciting, inciting another person to commit a crime.

Counselling

14

Consensus on how to count units and data elements. eg. Two assaults at same time is one offence or two?

Counting Procedure

15

Conduct prohibited by law and that is subject to penal sanction.

Crime

16

Taking amount of crime, dividing by population and then multiplying by a certain number (usually 100 000; 1 million for less common offences) to get the ______

Crime Rate

17

When an individual does -or omits to do - anything for the purpose of carrying out a previously formed intention to commit a crime. Must be step towards said crime.

Criminal Attempt

18

Body of jurisprudence containing definitions of crimes, penalties, principles regarding responsibility, and possible defences.

Criminal Law

19

Legislation specifying procedures to be followed in prosecution of a criminal case and defines powers/scope of criminal justice officials in said case.

Criminal Procedure

20

the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. Making/breaking laws, reacting to breaking laws, and the objective being to develop general principles regarding process of crime, law, and treatment.

Criminology

21

prevention achieved through fear of punishment

deterrence

22

amount of crime not reported or that is unknown. Victimization Surveys attempt to decrease it.

Dark Figure of Crime

23

Specification for what is to be collected.

Data element

24

Where ppl encounter one another in a variety of overlapping roles. Ppl continuously reminded of extensive bonds w/ others. Little specialization or separation in roles.

Diffuseness of Roles

25

Defence to criminal charge when accused was forced to commit crime as a consequence of threats of death or serious bodily harm made by another person.

Duress

26

Central farm owned by landlords where serfs would work the land and in turn give produce and payment to land owner. Declined as towns grew and monarchies became more prevalent.

Feudalism

27

specific area w/i a nation that is not subject to regulations and taxation normally imposed on business. (facilitate cross border production and trade)

Free Trade Zone

28

total amount of crime in a given community (no distinction b/w categories.

Gross Counts of Crime

29

theoretical construct which is abstracted from experience and brings together observed characteristics of real social relationships.

Ideal Type

30

linked set of beliefs and ideas that act to uphold and justify an existing or desired situation in society.

Ideology

31

Criminal offence committed whereby a person attempts to commit a crime but is unsuccessful in doing so.

Inchoate Crime

32

Can be a criminal defence if it prevents the person from forming the intent required for a specific intent offence, such as murder or robbery.

Intoxication

33

An act that violates criminal law and is punishable with jail, fine, an other sanctions.

Legal Definition of Crime

34

How data are combined. (city level, provincial, national data, etc)

Levels of Aggregation

35

Criminal Intent. Mental Elements contained in the definition of a criminal offence.

Mens Rea

36

study or critique of methods.

Methodology

37

a defence where the person accused acts under the influence of an honest mistake in relation to any of the elements of the acteus reus of the offence charged

Mistake of Fact

38

Dominant form of social and technical organization of economic production in society. Variety of modes can be distinguished.

Mode of Production

39

a special verdict where the accused must lack the capacity to appreciate the nature and quality of the act or omission in question.

NCRMD (not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder)

40

a defence when the accused commits the lesser evil of a crime in order to avoid the occurrence of a greater evil.

Necessity

41

Established rules of behaviour or standards of conduct

Norms

42

Part of mens rea based on determination of whether a reasonable person in same situation would have appreciated the risk involved in the accused conduct and taken measures to avoid

Objective Mens Rea

43

political system similar to kingdom that brings together a number of partly autonomous villages/communities under the hierarchical rule of a grand chief

Paramount Chieftainship

44

If one commits, aids/abets it, becomes a _________ by virtue of having formed a common intention w/ those actually committing the crime.

Party to a Crime

45

All members in a given class/set

Population

46

First scientific school by Lombroso. Agreed w/ positivism and argued that criminality is determined and that criminology should search for these causes. Believed this would allow for effective treatment.

Positive School

47

a partial defence to a charge of murder. Required elements are: 1. accused responded to a wrongful act/insult that would have caused person to lose self control 2. accused acted suddenly before passion could cool.

Provocation

48

Arise under legislation (prov, fed, ter.) which regulates inherently legitimate activities connected w/ trade, commerce and industry or with everyday life. Not serious in nature, usually minor penalties.

Regulatory Offences.

49

Consistency of the results over time.

Reliability

50

group of elements selected in a systematic manor from the population of interest

Sample

51

permitted in certain circumstances as a defence. Had to act w/o intending to inflict death, or harm and that no more force than necessary was used.

Self-Defence

52

A measure of crime involving a detailed questionnaire to a sample asking whether they have commited a crime in a specific period. good for determining social characteristics of offenders

Self-Report Study

53

Several crimes committed in one incident then only the most serious is counted

Seriousness Rule

54

Institution that claims the exclusive right to legitimate exercise of force in a given territory w/ the use of police, laws, and army to maintain order.

State

55

Explore the structure of emerging societies with assistance of statistical methods.
Quetelet + Guerry

Statistical School.

56

Physical signs of some special moral position (used by Lombroso w/ atavism)

Stigmata

57

elements of mens rea if based on a determination of what went on in the accused person's mind. Includes intention, knowledge, recklessness, wilful blindness.

Subjective Mens Rea

58

Excess of production. Exceeding immediate subsistence needs, contributed to social inequality and class division.

Surplus

59

A set of concepts and nominal definitions or assertions about relationships between these concepts/assumptions/knowledge claims.

Theory

60

Corporation having sales and production in many different nations. Often thought to be beyond political control of any one nation.

Transnational Corporation

61

Social Bonds based primarily on ppl's real/assumed common descent/ancestry. Distinguishes them from other ppl.

Tribalism

62

when an individual engages in conduct that is not only prohibited but also constitutes a serious breach of community values. Often perceived as inherently wrong.

"True Crime"

63

Period of English History from Owen Tudor (1485) to Henry V (1603)

Tudor

64

Stats Canada publications on standardized procedures for collecting and reporting crime information.

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

65

Whether or not a tool or concept actually measures that which it intends to.

Validity

66

Collective idea about what is right or wrong, good or bad, in a particular culture.

Value

67

Random Sample of ppl asked to recall and describe own experiences of being victims of crime. (whether reported the crime, and other related aspects)

Victimization Surveys

68

Crime committed by middle and upper class ppl in course of legitimate business activities. Now includes illegal actions of executives/employees against employed or use of organizational resources to gain personal benefit. Includes regulatory crimes too.

White-Collar Crime