W1 - Chapter 2 - Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations Flashcards Preview

z. Psychological Testing and Assessment > W1 - Chapter 2 - Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations > Flashcards

Flashcards in W1 - Chapter 2 - Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations Deck (48):

affirmative ACTION

VOLUNTARY & MANDATORY EFFORTS made by Federal, State & Local Governments and Private Employers.


Albemarle Paper Company v. Moody

A general abilities test which predicted measures of job performance in fact discriminated between white & black people (i.e., white always scored higher). District court ruled test was satisfactory; APPEALS court ruled that DISCRIMINATION had occurred (although unintended). p.61


Alfred Binet

1857-1911 (54yrs) - as early as 1895 he & Victor Henri published articles arguing for measurement of abilities (memories, social comprehension). 10 years later Binet & Theodore Simon published 30-item "measuring scale of intelligence" designed to help mentally retarded Paris school children - launched both the INTELLIGENCE TESTING & CLINICAL TESTING MOVEMENTS. p,1, 42, 43, 46


James McKeen Cattell

1860-1944 (84yrs) - psychologist who coined the term "mental test" in 1890 - doctoral dissertation in individual differences in reaction time - responsible for getting MENTAL TESTING underway in America - trained many Psychologists & founded publications such as the 'Psychological Review', 'Science', and 'American Men of Science' - student of Wundt in Leipzig - met GALTON in cambridge - inspired by him - instrumental in founding Psychological Corporation - goal "advancement of psychology and the promotion of the useful applications of psychology" - p.41, 42


Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882 (73yrs) spurred scientific interest in INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. His 1859 book "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection) - he argued that CHANCE VARIATION in species was either rejected or accepted by nature according to ADAPTIVITY & SURVIVAL value. - A new scientific respectability on experimentation with animals emerged p.40


Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education

presents standards for educational test developers in four areas 1) DEVELOPING/SELECTING TESTS; 2) INTERPRETING SCORES; 3) STRIVING FOR FAIRNESS; and 4) INFORMING TESTTAKERS. Jointly authored by the Joint Committee of Testing Practices (APA, AERA NCME, the Am Ass for Measurement Evaluation in Counselling & Development, & the Am Speech-Language Hearing Ass. p.67


code of professional ethics

a body of guidelines that sets forth the STANDARD OF CARE EXPECTED of members of a profession p.58


collectivist culture

a culture in which value is placed on TRAITS such as CONFORMITY, COOPERATION & striving towward GROUP GOALS. p.55



ETHICAL OBLIGATION of professionals to keep ALL COMMUNICATIONS entrusted to them confidential. May be compelled under COURT ORDER or other EXTRAODINARY conditions, i.e., third party in imminent DANGER (e.g., child abuse); contrast with privacy right. p.74 & I-6



SOCIALLY transmitted BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS, BELIEFS & PRODUCTS OF WORK of a particular population, community or group of people. p.45 I-7


culture-specific test

test designed for use with one culture but not another 'isolate' the CULTURAL VARIABLE - e.g., Stanford-Binet included no minorities until 1960 revision - Wechsler-Bellevue could not be used with coloured populations - WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children from 1949 - 1974 contained no minority children in its development - p.47


Debra P. v Turlington

Federal court ruled that MINIMUM COMPETENCY TESTING in Florida was UNCONSTITUTIONAL because it perpetuated the effects of PAST DISCRIMINATION p.61 (check 1983 ruling in ENote)



a body of principles of RIGHT, PROPER, or GOOD CONDUCT; contrast with laws.....p.58



the science of improving qualities of a breed - through INTERVENTION with factors related to HEREDITY .....p.49


Francis Galton

- cousin of Charles Darwin - influential contributor to field of measurement - 1869 aspired to CLASSIFY people according to their NATURAL GIFTS" & ascertain their "DEVIATION from an AVERAGE" - devised & contributed to DEVELOPMENT of many contemporary TOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT (questionnaires, rating scales & self-report inventories) - pioneered the COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION - looked at HEREDITY in peas then later in humans - 1884 London, ANTHROPOMETRIC LABORATORY - he excited widespread interest in MEASUREMENT of PSYCHOLOGY related VARIABLES - p.40,41


Henry H. Goddard

(1866 – 1957 - 90yrs) - although he used ill-advised research methods to derive many of his conclusions, his efforts aided state mandates requiring special education services to become law - He was also an advocate for court acceptance of INTELLIGENCE TEST DATA into evidence - His writings had a momentous HEURISTIC IMPACT on the nature-nurture debate - prominent American psychologist and eugenicist - 1912 work The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, which he himself came to regard as deeply flawed, and for being the first to TRANSLATE BINET intelligence test into English in 1908 and distributing an estimated 22,000 copies of the translated test; he also introduced the term "moron" into the field..- many RADICAL GROUPS used his work to support offensive views e.g., NAZI's - this did not help Goddard's reputation - 46,47,48


Griggs v. Duke Power Company

Black employees brought suit against a private company for DISCRIMINATORY HIRING PRACTICES - US District Court found problems with "broad and general testing devices" and ruled that tests must "fairly measure the knowledge or skills required by a particular job" - p.61



Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) p.60 & Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA) - took effect in April 2003 - limits the ways that health care providers etc. can use patients' personal medical information - due to decision in "Jaffee v. Redmond" more stringent protection over psychotherapy notes is required by HIPAA. - p.75


hired gun

professionals willing to testify to almost anything - corrupt legal processes in determining assisted suicide as they provide whatever professional opinion is desired by the side paying their fees p.69


Hobson v. Hansen

U.S. Supreme Court ruled that ability tests developed on Whites could not lawfully be used to track Black students in the school system. To do so could result in resegregation of desegregated schools - p.61


individualistic culture



informed consent

typically in relation to a diagnostic, evaluative or therapeutic service - it is the permission to proceed on the basis of knowledge of service, its risks & potential benefits. ......p.72-73


Jafee v. Redmond

Communication between a psychotherapist & a patient is PRIVELEGED in FEDERAL COURTS - (also applies to psychological assessor & a client/assessee) p.61 & 75


Larry P. v. Riles

Californian judge ruled that the use of INTELLIGENCE TESTS to place BLACK children in special classes had a DISCRIMINATORY IMPACT because the tests were "RACIALLY & CULTURALLY BIASED" p.61



RULES that individuals MUST OBEY because they are deemed to be GOOD for SOCIETY as a whole' contrast with ethics ....p.58



LAW resulting from COURT-MEDIATED resolution of legal matters of a CIVIL, CRIMINAL & ADMINISTRATIVE nature - also referred to as 'judge-made law'......p.63-66


minimum competency testing programmes

designed to aid in EDUCATIONAL DECISIONS ranging from remediation to graduation - they are FORMAL EVALUATIONS of basic skills such as READING, WRITING & ARITHMETIC. ...p.61 (remediation is the action of remedying something)


Christiana D. Morgan

(1897–1967) was a lay psychoanalyst at Harvard University best known for her work co-authoring the Thematic Apperception Test, one of the most widely used projective psychological tests. She administered one of the earliest versions of the test to one of the first diagnosed anorexic patients in Boston. She is mostly remembered as the lover of American psychologist Henry Murray (wiki)....p.45


Henry A. Murray

Murray was also a co-developer, with Christiana Morgan, of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (wiki).2, 45



Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (ODDA) - p.68-70


Karl Pearson

(1857-1936) developed the product-moment correlation technique (roots traced to work of Galton) He was a proponent of eugenics, and a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.(wiki) p.41


privacy right

the FREEDOM of people to CHOOSE the time, circumstances & extent they wish to SHARE or WITHHOLD personal beliefs, opinions & behaviour from others; contrast with confidentiality......p.74


privileged information

data protected by LAW from DISCLOSURE in a legal proceeding; typically exceptions to privilege are also noted in law; contrast with confidential information .......p.74


projective test

individual assumed to project his/her own unique NEEDS, FEARS, HOPES and MOTIVATION onto some AMBIGUOUS STIMULI e.g., an inkblot, drawing, photograph, or something else (best known the Rorschach (series of inkblots developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach) p.44



theory of personality & psychological treatment, originally developed by Sigmund Freud. p.52


Public Law 105-17



quota system

SELECTION PROCEDURE - FIXED number or percentage of applicants (with certain characteristics or backgrounds) are selected - REGARDLESS of other factors such as DOCUMENTED ABILITY p.63


Hermann Rorschach

1884 – 1922 - 38yrs old) was a Swiss Freudian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, best known for developing a projective test known as the Rorschach inkblot test. This test was reportedly designed to reflect unconscious parts of the personality that "project" onto the stimuli. In the test, individuals are shown 10 inkblots - one at a time - and asked to report what objects or figures they see in each of them - Rorschach studied under the eminent psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who had taught Carl Jung. 1921 he wrote his book Psychodiagnostik, which was to form the basis of the inkblot test.Only one year after writing his book, however, Rorschach died of peritonitis, probably resulting from a ruptured appendix. He was still Associate Director of the Herisau Hospital when he died at the age of 37, on 1 April 1922.[6] p.44



process where ASSESSEE supplies PERSONAL INFORMATION - e.g., by responding to questions, keeping diary, or reporting on SELF MONITORED thoughts &/or behaviours p. 44 (400-402)



Sputnil launch caused widespread concern about US's ability to compete in frontier of space - More emphasis was then placed on education, particularly maths, science, engineering & physics. - Greater efforts also needed to be made to identify GIFTED CHILDREN who would one day apply such knowledge in the race to space - IMPACT ON TESTING - Congress passed the 'National Defence Education Act" proviging federal money to local schools - to test ABILITY, APTITUDE & IDENTIFY GIFTED STUDENTS p,59 + fig2-4


standard of care

the level at which THE AVERAGE, REASONABLE & PRUDENT professional would provide diagnostic or therapeutic services under same or similar conditions - defined by 'code of professional ethics p.58


Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California

Therapists MUST reveal PRIVELEGED information if a THIRD PARTY is ENDANGERED. In the words of the court, "Protective privilege ends where the public peril begins."p.61 (74, 512)


truth-in-testing legislation

state-level law passed in 1980's - PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: give the testtakers a way to learn the CRITERIA they are being judged on - Range of laws, some mandate DISCLOSURE of answers with in 30 days - some require information on test's development & technical soundness be kept on file - Some TIT laws require descriptions of 1) tests purpose & subject matter; 2) the knowledge & skills the test purports to measure; 3) procedures for ensuring accuracy in scoring; 4) procedures for notifying testtakers of errors in scoring; & 5) procedures for ensuring the testtakers confidentiality. TIT's create problems for TEST DEVELOPERS with LIMITED ITEM POOLS p.61


David Wechsler

David "Wex" Wechsler (1896 – 1981- 85yrs) clinical psychologist at Bellevue. He developed intelligence scale - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (originally christened the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. He also designed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) wiki - p.43,47


Lightner Witmer

(1867 – 1956 - 88yrs) an American psychologist - student of Wundt in Leipzig - credited with the introduction of the term "Clinical Psychology." -founded the world's first "Psychological Clinic" in the United States at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, wiki. - founded the journal "Psychological Clinic" p.42,43


Robert S. Woodworth

- developed a PERSONALITY TEST for civilian use (based on the 'Personal Data Sheet' he had been assigned to develop during World War 1 - a measure of adjustment & emotional stability - he called this the WOODWORTH PSYCHONEUROTIC INVENTORY - the FIRST widely used MEASURE OF PERSONALITY
- studied under William James along with such prominent psychologists as Leta Stetter Hollingworth, James Rowland Angell, and Edward Thorndike. - His textbook Psychology: A study of mental life, which appeared first in 1921, was the first introduction to psychology for generations of undergraduate students. He is known for introducing the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) formula of behavior, wiki .44


Wilhelm Max Wundt

unlike Galton, Wundt focussed on SIMILARITIES rather than differences in people - attempted to control for EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES (now routine in contemporary measurement so that observed differences are due to actual variable of interest) p.41


Intelligence according to Wechsler

the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to ACT PURPOSEFULLY, to THINK RATIONALLY, and to DEAL EFFECTIVELY with his environment. p.43