W12_07 common problems in toddlers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in W12_07 common problems in toddlers Deck (27):
1

note: temper tantrums are normal

kids are frustrated - can't do what they want to do

2

what are the 4 areas of limit setting for temper tantrums?

selective;
explicit;
firm;
consistent

3

what's the approach for a child with temper tantrum?

allow child to blow off steam;
distraction;
physical restraint (if you have to prevent danger);
time outs;
reinforce teaching principle

4

note: positive reinforcement is always better than negative reinforcement!

ok

5

recall breath-holding spells

usually 12-18 months;
5% of kids;
decreased oxygen/blood to brain;
tx: disregard the child

6

recall sibling rivalry

no cure;
bound to happen

7

recall headbanging/rocking

self-stimulatory;
calming;
tx: disregard

8

when do kids start to have control over external sphincters?

12-18 months;
mature control by 18-24 months

9

what's the pain-retention cycle of bowel movements?

voluntary withholding of stool;
rectal impact/drying;
painful bowel movement;
voluntary witholding of stool

10

what're the causes of diarrhea?

usually infectious;
sometimes extraintestinal, or drugs

11

what're the factors that make diarrhea more of a bacterial cause than viral?

contacts;
travel;
blood in stool;
severity (bacteria usually more serious)

12

how much fluid intake is requried for every 1 degree increase in body temp?

12 percent

13

what's the gold standard for dehydration assessment in acute diarrhea?

weight loss

14

what do dry tears or dry mouths represent in fluid loss estimate?

5 percent (3 in adults)

15

what do decreased urine output, sunken eyes, fontanelle depression, apathy represent in fluid loss estimate?

10 percent (6 in adults)

16

how much fluid loss has to occur before shock sets in?

15 percent (9 in adults)

17

how to treat acute diarrhea?

water, electrolytes, oral rehydration therapy;
limit intake for vomiting, limit complicating foods for diarrhea; ondansetron for nausea

18

when do sphenoidal sinuses develop?

5 years

19

when do frontal sinuses develop?

7-13 years

20

what's the timespan of acute bacterial sinusitis?

< 30 days

21

what're some recommendations for diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis?

persistent past 10 days;
worsening after initial improvement;
fever of 39+, purulent discharge after 3-4 days (this is severe)

22

what's the first line therapy for acute bacterial sinusitis?

amoxicillin

23

what can cause diaper rash?

irritation due to increased pH from urine;
contact dermatitis;
candida albicans;
bacterial (e.g. strep);
seborrhea

24

what are treatments for diaper rash

no diapers;
creams;
powder;
cortisone;
antifungals;
antibacterials

25

how many baby teeth are there?

twenty 20

26

how do the first 4 pairs of baby teeth come in?

lower central incisor;
upper central incisor;
upper lateral;
lower lateral

27

when do the first baby teeth come in?

7 months (then 1 per month)

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