Flashcards in W3 Deck (39):

1

## quantitative measurement

### research involving the collection of data in numerical form

2

## procedure for data analysis

###
validation and editing

coding

data entry

logical clearing of data

tabulation and statistical analysis

3

## validation

### process of ascertaining that interviews actually were conducted as specified

4

## editing

### process of ascertaining that questionnaires were filled out properly and completely

5

## coding

### process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the various responses to a question

6

## data entry

### process of converting information to an electronic format

7

## inteligent data entry

### form of data entry in which the information being entered into the data entry device is checked for internal logic

8

## scanning

### form of data entry in which responses on the questionnaires are read in automatically by the data entry device

9

## logical cleaning of data

### final computerized error check of data

10

## one-way frequency table

### tables showing the number of respondents choosing each answer to a survey question

11

## cross tabulation

### examination of the responses to one question relative to the responses to one or more other questions

12

## tabulation and statistical analysis methods

###
one-way frequency tables

cross tabulation

13

## graphic representations of data

###
line charts

pie charts

bar charts

14

## nominal (categorical)

###
pre-defined categories

numbers have no mathematical properties and serve as labels for identification

calculate frequencies/ mode

15

## nominal example

### sex - male/ female

16

## ordinal (categorical)

###
ranked data

numbers indicate whether people have more or less of the characteristic

calculate frequencies/ mode

17

## ordinal example

### rank preference of Coke/ Pepsi/ Fanta

18

## interval (continuous)

###
can either have a natural zero/ no true zero (e.g. income vs. height)

continuous scale with a rank order

calculate frequencies/ mode/ median/ mean

19

## measures of central tendancy

###
help us to move from our sample to our population

e.g. mode/ median/ mean

20

## median

### the middle value in an ordered sample set

21

## mean

### sum of the values divided by the number of cases

22

## mode

### value that occurs most frequently

23

## measures of dispersion

###
tell us to what extent our variable differs between people in the sample

e.g. range/ standard deviation/ variance

24

## range

### difference between the highest and the lowest values

25

## standard deviation

### the average deviation from the mean score

26

## small standard deviation =

### values concentrated around the mean

27

## large standard deviation =

### values spread out from the mean

28

## variance

### SD squared

29

## normality

### classification of a variables distribution and the frequency that values appear in the sample data

30

## normal distribution - if scores are further away from the mean what does that mean?

### they occur less frequently

31

## threats to normality

###
skewness

kurtosis

32

## skewness

### the degree to which scores cluster at one end of the graph compared to the other

33

## kurtosis

### the mean does not differ, but SD does

34

## what shape should a histogram be?

### bell-shaped

35

## with a histogram, what number of results lie either side (SD) of the mean?

###
95% of scores between 1.96SD

99% of scores between 2.56SD

36

## sample

### the best estimate from a population

37

## sampling error

### the degree to which the sample and the population differ

38

## standard error of the mean

### our best estimate of the mean, given the sample

39