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Marketing Research Semester 2 > W3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in W3 Deck (39):
1

quantitative measurement

research involving the collection of data in numerical form

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procedure for data analysis

validation and editing
coding
data entry
logical clearing of data
tabulation and statistical analysis

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validation

process of ascertaining that interviews actually were conducted as specified

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editing

process of ascertaining that questionnaires were filled out properly and completely

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coding

process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the various responses to a question

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data entry

process of converting information to an electronic format

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inteligent data entry

form of data entry in which the information being entered into the data entry device is checked for internal logic

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scanning

form of data entry in which responses on the questionnaires are read in automatically by the data entry device

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logical cleaning of data

final computerized error check of data

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one-way frequency table

tables showing the number of respondents choosing each answer to a survey question

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cross tabulation

examination of the responses to one question relative to the responses to one or more other questions

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tabulation and statistical analysis methods

one-way frequency tables
cross tabulation

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graphic representations of data

line charts
pie charts
bar charts

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nominal (categorical)

pre-defined categories
numbers have no mathematical properties and serve as labels for identification
calculate frequencies/ mode

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nominal example

sex - male/ female

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ordinal (categorical)

ranked data
numbers indicate whether people have more or less of the characteristic
calculate frequencies/ mode

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ordinal example

rank preference of Coke/ Pepsi/ Fanta

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interval (continuous)

can either have a natural zero/ no true zero (e.g. income vs. height)
continuous scale with a rank order
calculate frequencies/ mode/ median/ mean

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measures of central tendancy

help us to move from our sample to our population
e.g. mode/ median/ mean

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median

the middle value in an ordered sample set

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mean

sum of the values divided by the number of cases

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mode

value that occurs most frequently

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measures of dispersion

tell us to what extent our variable differs between people in the sample
e.g. range/ standard deviation/ variance

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range

difference between the highest and the lowest values

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standard deviation

the average deviation from the mean score

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small standard deviation =

values concentrated around the mean

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large standard deviation =

values spread out from the mean

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variance

SD squared

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normality

classification of a variables distribution and the frequency that values appear in the sample data

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normal distribution - if scores are further away from the mean what does that mean?

they occur less frequently

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threats to normality

skewness
kurtosis

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skewness

the degree to which scores cluster at one end of the graph compared to the other

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kurtosis

the mean does not differ, but SD does

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what shape should a histogram be?

bell-shaped

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with a histogram, what number of results lie either side (SD) of the mean?

95% of scores between 1.96SD
99% of scores between 2.56SD

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sample

the best estimate from a population

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sampling error

the degree to which the sample and the population differ

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standard error of the mean

our best estimate of the mean, given the sample

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z score

how many SD an element is from the mean