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Flashcards in Walking and gaits Deck (13):
1

What is stance phase?

accounts for 60% of the gait cycle
includes heel strike, support and toe-off phase

2

What is the swing phase?

40% of gait cycle
consists of leg lift and swing phase

3

What are the 3 muscles used in heel strike?

gluteus maximus
quadricep femoris (anterior thigh)
anterior compartment of the leg

4

Describe the function of the muscles used for heel strike

G.M. - decelerate lower limb from hip
Q.F. - extend leg at hip and knee joint
anterior leg - maintains ankle dorsiflexion (up), position heel for strike

5

What is the support stage and which muscles are used in this stage?

after the heel strikes the ground and the force needs to be transmitted up the lower limb
1. quadriceps femoris
2. inverters & evertors (tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior)
3. gluteus medius, minimus, tensor fasciae latae

6

What are the functions of the support muscles?

Q.F. - keep leg extended, accepting weight of body
inverters & everters - contract to stabilise foot
glut & tensor - abduct lower limb, keep pelvis balance from having most of body weight on 1 limb

7

What happens in the toe-off phase and which muscles are involved?

foot prepares to leave the ground - heel first, toes last
hamstring muscles (posterior thigh)
quadriceps femoris (anterior thigh)
posterior leg

8

What are the functions of the muscles involved in the toe-off stage?

hamstring - extend leg at hip
quadriceps femoris - maintain extended knee
posterior leg (gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior) - plantar flex ankle

9

what happens in the leg lift stage and which muscles are involved?

once foot has left ground, lower limb lifts in preparation of swing stage
1. iliopsoas & rectus femoris
2. hamstrings (posterior thigh)
3. anterior leg muscles - dorsiflex ankle

10

What is the function of the muscles used in the leg lift phase?

1. iliopsoas & R.F. - flex lower limb at hip: drive knee forwards
2. hamstring muscles - flex knee
3. anterio leg - dorsiflex ankle

11

What happens in the swing phase and which muscles are involved?

leg raised & propelled forwards - motion of walk
1. iliopsoas & rectus femoris
2. quadriceps femoris
3. anterior leg

12

What is the function of the muscles involved in the swing phase?

1. iliopsoas & R.F. - keep hip flexed: resist gravity as it tries to pull leg down
2. Q.F.: extend knee, position for standing
3. anterior leg - maintain dorsiflexion so heel is placed down first when landing

13

What are the 2 main stages of walking?

1. stance phase
2. swing phase