Flashcards in War Deck (14):
Basic characteristics of war
- Conflict between or among political groups
- Organised violence
- Violence on a large scale, UN says 1,000 deaths a year
- Lasts a significant period of time
Differences between Old and New War?
1) Old Wars were conducted by state armies; New Wars have blurred lines between civilians and combattants
2) Old Wars were fought with clear geopolitical aims in mind; New Wars are fought for identity or ideology
3) Old Wars used set piece battles and followed conventions; New War uses guerrilla tactics to terrorise civilians
4) Old Wars were state funded; New Wars are funded by criminal means
Criticisms of New War
- Intercommunal war has always existed eg French Wars of Religion in the 16th century
- War has caused disruption to civilian life for years
- War has strayed from the rules on many occasions — the Holocaust!
Why are asymmetrical wars so hard to win?
- Global public opinion deems it inappropriate
- States struggle with guerrilla tactics
- Wars over identity are hard to stamp out the root cause of
Why has the term Terrorism been criticised?
- It is subjective
- It is applied subjectively
- It is only applied to non-state actors
How was terrorism evolved since 9/11?
- It is now transnational
- Motivated by a broad, often religious, ideology
- Terrorists aim for maximum damage with minimum notice
How can we counter terror?
- Strengthen state security by curbing some human rights
- Military repression
- Political deals
Why has identity politics become more significant?
- Post colonialism has led former colonies to seek their own identities
- Failure of Communism has led to the reemergence of ethnic and religious groups
- Globalisation, especially Cultural Globalisation, leads to a clash of cultures (or maybe civilisations 😘)
Why has there been a reemergence in religious fundamentalism?
- Rise of social conservatism like Islamic Revolution or the Christian Right
- Post-colonialism has led ex colonies to search for a new identity to unify under
There is a global Clash of Civilisations
+ There’s been a resurgence in national and religious identity, especially in Islam
+ Post 9/11 terror is based on cultural conflict
+ Tensions is strong on boundaries between Huntington’s civilisations
- Civilisations are complex and fragmented compared to the clarity of state interests
- Cultural harmony is possible and still takes place
- Tension between states is normal
Conflict between Islam and the West is inevitable
+ Political Islam doesn’t recognise boundaries between religion and politics
+ War on Terror and subsequent terror largely plays out between the West and Islam
+ Globalisation is West-centric which can be read as an attack on Islamic values
- Islam, like all religions, is fragmented
- Complex interdependence overrides West/Islam divide
- Democratic Peace!
Why do states pursue nuclear weapons?
- Strengthening power and influence
- Regional tensions and fear of opponents
Nuclear weapons are a threat to peace and security
+ Human fallibility can bring us too close to mass destruction
+ Dangers of horizontal proliferation in the post-bipolarity age
+ Threat of rogue states arming
- Balance of terror, MAD
- Horizontal proliferation is slow enough for the international community to adapt to it
- Nuclear weapons change the mindset of a state