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Flashcards in Wastes And removal Deck (22):
0

What is the excretory system responsible for?

Maintaining water balance, ion concentrations and waste removal in vertebrate animals

1

Deamination

Removal of nitrogen groups in amino acids

2

Amino acids can form

Glucose and ammonia (nitrogenous waste

3

Ways of getting rid of waste

1. NH3- (must remove huge amounts of water) eg. Fish
2. Urea- (It needs a lot less water) (requires energy to s it

4

What animals make uric acid

Reptiles and birds

5

Uris acid (limited water available)

- less toxic than urea or ammonia, and is INSOLUBLE
- requires twice as much energy t convert ammonia to Uris acid

6

Urea

- less toxic than ammonia
- requires energy t convert ammonia toured
- humans and most mammals

7

Ammonia (lots of water available)

Toxic
- can be converted to less toxic forms

8

Kidneys roles

- filter blood, remove wastes
- produce urine,
- excrete hormones, vitamins and excess salts
- maintain pH of blood

9

Structure of kidneys

Medulla: second layer of kidneys- NEPHRONS
Cortex: outer layer of kidney, contains glomerulus

10

What is the nephron made up of

Long slender tubes where urine is produced, made up of glomerulus, bowman s capsule and loop of Henle

11

Glomerulus

Capillary network where fluid is filtered from capillaries under high pressure

12

Bowmans capsule

Blood filtering unit surrounding the glomeruli, collects fluid for more selective processing
End up with water, glucose

13

Urine formation

1. Filtration
Reabsorption
Secretion

14

Filtration

Occurs in bow and capsule
- blood pressure forces water and solutes (glucose, sodium, urea) from glomerus into bowmans capsule
- filtered because blood cells, large proteins and large solutes remain in the blood

15

Reabsorption

Occurs in tubular sections of the nephron
- proximal tube selectively reabsorption glucose, salts, ions by diffusion or active transport
- loops of Henle reabsorption much more water

16

Secretion

Occurs in the opposite direction to reabsorption
- material from blood, (ions, uric acid and foreign substances like some drugs) enter the filtrate

17

Urine

Is the fluid that is left after secretion

18

Where is urine stored

In the bladder

19

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone. uses the collecting tubules to reabsorption more water,
- the amount of ADH I the body determines how much water is lost by the body
- if an organisms water output is more than water input, then dehydration can occur

20

Water inputs

Free water
Metabolic water (cellular respiration)
Food (seeds, plants

21

Water outputs

Urine
Sweat
Milk production
Faeces
Exhaled air