Water & Carbon 3111 - Systems approach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Water & Carbon 3111 - Systems approach Deck (24):
1

What is an input?

Material or enemy moving into the system from outside w.g in a drainage basic precipitation and in a woodland carbon cycle precipitation with dissolved co2

2

What is an output?

Material or energy moving out of the system in a drainage basis runoff and in a woodland carbon cycle dissolved carbon in runoff

3

What is latent heat?

The heat required to change a solid to a liquid

4

What is a store?

Individual elements

5

What are flows and transfers?

Links between components

6

What is positive feedback?

A cyclic sequence of events that increases change. Positive feedback loops exacerbate the outputs of a system driving it in one direction and promoting environmental instability.

7

What is negative feedback?

A cyclic sequence of events that neutralises the effects of a system promoting stability and a state of dynamic equilibrium.

8

What is dynamic equilibrium?

A state of balance within a constantly changing system.

9

Why is a systems approach useful?

A systems approach helps us to understand how energy is transferred between the components of a system and how these components themselves change.

10

What is an isolated system?

A system in which there are no interactions with anything outside of the system boundary, no inputs or outputs of energy or matter. These are mainly controlled lab experiments and are very rare in nature.

11

What is an open system?

A system in which matter and energy are transferred into and from the system into the surrounding environment.

12

What is a closed system?

These are systems that have transfers of energy both into and beyond the system but no transfers of matter.

13

Give a detailed example of positive feedback in the water cycle.

Rising sea levels (due to thermal expansion and the melting of freshwater ice) can destabilise ice shelves causing an increase in the fate of calving, therefore increasing the rate of ice melting and ultimately causes sea levels to rise further.

14

Give a detailed example of positive feedback in the carbon cycle.

Increased global temperatures due to climate change cause the melting of permafrost. Trapped greenhouse gasses are released into the atmosphere enhancing the greenhouse effect raising temperatures further.

15

Give a detailed example of negative feedback in the water cycle.

An increase in global temperatures, result in an increase in evaporation from oceans, meaning there is more cloud cover. Clouds reflect radiation from the sun resulting in a slight cooling of surface temperatures.

16

Give a detailed example of negative feedback in the carbon cycle.

An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide results in an increase in global temps, promoting plant growth and rates of photosynthesis. This in turn removes more C02 from the atmosphere counteracting the rise in temperatures.

17

Why is a systems approach useful?

A systems approach helps us to understand how energy is transferred between the components of a system and how these components themselves change.

18

What is an isolated system?

A system in which there are no interactions with anything outside of the system boundary, no inputs or outputs of energy or matter. These are mainly controlled lab experiments and are very rare in nature.

19

What is an open system?

A system in which matter and energy are transferred into and from the system into the surrounding environment.

20

What is a closed system?

These are systems that have transfers of energy both into and beyond the system but no transfers of matter.

21

Give a detailed example of positive feedback in the water cycle.

Rising sea levels (due to thermal expansion and the melting of freshwater ice) can destabilise ice shelves causing an increase in the fate of calving, therefore increasing the rate of ice melting and ultimately causes sea levels to rise further.

22

Give a detailed example of positive feedback in the carbon cycle.

Increased global temperatures due to climate change cause the melting of permafrost. Trapped greenhouse gasses are released into the atmosphere enhancing the greenhouse effect raising temperatures further.

23

Give a detailed example of negative feedback in the water cycle.

An increase in global temperatures, result in an increase in evaporation from oceans, meaning there is more cloud cover. Clouds reflect radiation from the sun resulting in a slight cooling of surface temperatures.

24

Give a detailed example of negative feedback in the carbon cycle.

An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide results in an increase in global temps, promoting plant growth and rates of photosynthesis. This in turn removes more C02 from the atmosphere counteracting the rise in temperatures.