Weak Concepts- For Midterm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Weak Concepts- For Midterm Deck (62):

Define density

The frequency with which something occurs in space


Define a formal (or uniform) region and give examples

An area within which everyone has at least one or more distinctive characteristics in common that are universally recognized. Ex: The US, Canada, Tennessee, etc


Define a functional (nodal) region and give examples

An area organized around a node or focal point. Ex: TV broadcast area, train stations, airport, etc


Define a vernacular (or perceptual) region and give examples

A place people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity that is not universally agreed upon. Ex: The South, the Rust Belt, the Sun Belt, etc


Define site

The physical characteristic of a place


Define situation

The location of a place relative to other places


Define concentration

The extent of a feature's spread over an area


Define a chloropleth map

A map that shows you by county where something is


What is a proportional map

Big and little dots


What's an isoline map?



Define GIS (Global Information System)

A computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays geographic data. It's used to make maps.


Define GPS (Global positioning system)

A system that accurately determines the precise position of something on earth


Define physiological density

The number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture


Define projection

The scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map


Define stimulus diffusion

The spread of an underlying principle even though the characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse


Define scale

The relationship between the portion of the Earth being studied and the earth as a whole


If something a map has a large scale, is it more zoomed in or out?

It's more zoomed in


Define agricultural density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture


Define arithmetic density

The total number of people divided by the total land area


What are the pros and cons of the Robinson map?

It's good for everyday use, however it distorts land masses.


What are the pros and cons of the Mercator map?

It's good for navigation, however the landmasses at the poles look larger than they really are


What is Goode's projection map also called and why is it used a lot?

It's also called the "Orange peel map". It's good because there's not much distortion


Define demography

The scientific study of population characteristics


Define ecumene

The portion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement


What are the theories of Thomas Malthus? (And when did he make them?)

He argued that the rate of the world's population increase is outrunning the development of food supplies. However, he made these conclusions while England was still in stage 2 of the DTM and growing rapidly


What do Neo-Malthusians believe?

They think that world population growth (today) is outstripping a wide variety of resources, not just food production.


What do Anti-Malthusians believe?

Malthus's critics come from a wide variety of perspectives. However, they all consider Malthus's beliefs unrealistic because Malthus considers our amount of resources to be fixed, not expanding. Larger population = More production of food


Define a guest worker

A term once used for a worker who migrated to developed countries in search of a higher-paying job


Define interregional migration

Permanent migration from one region of the country to another


Define intraregional migration

Permanent migration within one region of a country


What are Ravenstein's Laws of Migration?

A set of geographic theories to explain his observations of human migration that specifically look at the distance migrants move, the reasons they move, and the characteristics of the typical migrant.


What is Zelinsky's Theory of Migration?

A set of migration patterns developed by Wilbur Zelinksy that correlate to the DTM


What are the five parts to Ravenstein's laws of migration?

1. Migration tends to happen more over short distances.
2. Occurs overs a series of stages (step migration) from the countryside, to villages, to small downs, then to cities
3. Every migration has a counterflow (movement to the cities, as well as away from the cities)
4. Urban dwellers are less migratory than rural residents
5. Most migrants are adults – Women are more migratory over short distances and men tend to migrate over long distances while looking for economic opportunity


During stage 1 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?

High daily or seasonal mobility in search of food


During stage 2 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?

High international emmigration and interregional migration from rural to urban areas


During stage 3 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?

High international immigration and intraregional migration from cities to suburbs


During stage 4 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?

Same as stage three; high international immigration in intraregional migration from cities to suburbs


During stage 5 of the DTM, according to Wilbur Zelinski, what type of migration are they likely to engage in?

If anyone in a stage five country moves it all, it's internally because there's no reason to leave the country with such a good quality of life


Define custom

A custom is the frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the group of people performing the act


Where did English come from and what languages influenced its development?

It originated in The British Isles. The Celts, Germanic tribes, Vikings, and Normans all had their own unique languages and they combined to create English.


What's a negative part of the diffusion of culture?

The fact that it can contribute to placelessness


What's a positive part of the diffusion of culture?

It causes more revenue for the country of origin/hearth


Define Pidgin language

A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of the lingua franca; used for communications amongst speakers of two different languages


Defined interfaith conflict

Conflict within one face


Define intrafaith conflict

Conflicts amongst two or more faiths


Why are there so many Baptists in the South (U.S.?)

They came to America from England due to religious persecution, and they chose to settle in the south because of a similar climate. The civil war kept it from diffusing to the North until later.


Where did the majority of the original Presbyterians come from?

The Highlands of Scotland


Where are Presbyterians commonly found today and why?

There are found in the Southern US and West Pennsylvania. This is due to the fact that the original immigrants were from Scotland in Scotland has a similar climate to the Eastern United States, and in addition there is evidence of chain migration


Where did Mormonism originate and why did it diffuse?

Originated in New York and it diffused from Ohio, then to Western Missouri, and to Illinois, and eventually Utah due to religious persecution and missionaries


What is one explanation for why the tensions are lower today than ever before as far as religion goes in Europe?

The growing trend of secularism


What are the three branches of Buddhism?

Mahayana, Theravada, and Vajrayana


What are the 3 major branches of Christianity?

Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox


What are the two branches of Islam?

Sunni and Shia (Shi'ite)


Define Balkanization

The break up of a large Multi ethnic state due to ethnic conflict


Define apartheid

The legal segregation of races or ethnicities


What is the Jim Crow law?

It basically mean "separate but equal" – It encouraged many African-Americans to flee to the cities in the north looking for work in the 1940s and 50s


What is ethnocentrism?

The belief that one's own ethnicity is better than another ethnicity


What is state sponsored terrorism?

When a state provides terrorists sanctuary/ protection, supplies weapons and/or money, or helps plan and coordinate attacks


What countries does the US consider to be state sponsors of terrorism?

Iran, Sudan, Syria


What is Al Qaeda?

"The base" was formed in the 1980s lead by Osama bin Laden. In 1989 the Soviets withdraw from Afghanistan and set their sights on taking down the US.


When did Bin Laden become angry with the US and why?

After the First Gulf War in 1990 because he was forced out of Africa and then began setting up training camps in Afghanistan


What are some of the primary goals of modern terrorist groups?

Destroy the US (one of the last remaining superpowers), Drive minority groups out of majority ethnic areas, Punish states that support Israel, religious extremism, and self rule/ independance for a certain region or group of people.