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Flashcards in Weather Deck (40):

How do low pressure systems form?

1) Warm air rises up
2) The space left behind sucks in air (wind)
3) Rising air forms clouds and then rain


How do high pressure systems form?

1) Cool air sinks down
2) As it sinks it warms up, so no clouds form
3) Skies stay clear; days are hot, nights are cool.


Name all the polar cells from north to south

1) Polar
2) Ferrel
3) Hadley


Which direction do winds 'turn' in the northern hemisphere?

Right (clockwise)


Which direction do winds 'turn' in the southern hemisphere?

Left (Anti clockwise)


Where do cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes each form?

Hurricanes: The Americas (North of equator)
Cyclones: Indian Ocean and pacific (South of equator)
Typhoons: Pacific (north of equator)


What temperature is required for a tropical storm to form?

27 degrees celcius


When do tropical storms form?

In summer and autumn


Where do most tropical storms form?

5-15 degrees north/south of equator


What is the first stage of a tropical storm's formation?

Low pressure draws up water vapour.


What is the second stage of a tropical storm's formation?

Water vapour condenses, forming thunderstorm clouds.


What is the third stage of a tropical storm's formation?

Heat is released as the air condenses, increases the power of the storm so more water is drawn up.


What is the fourth stage of a tropical storm's formation?

Smaller storms join. Must reach 120 mph to truly be a tropical storm.


What is the fifth stage of a tropical storm's formation?

An eye develops at the centre. The eyewall has the most intense conditions.


What is the sixth stage of a tropical storm's formation?

The storm is carried by prevailing winds, upon landfall no water is available and friction causes it to weaken.


Name 4 primary impacts of hurricane sandy

1) 149 people killed
2) Atlantic city (NJ) ; floods + famed boardwalk broken
3) $50 billion in damage
4) 346,000 home damaged in New York


Name 4 secondary impacts of hurricane sandy

1) Millions of $ of hotel revenue lost in NY + NJ
2) Three main airports closed for 2 days
3) Wall street trading stopped for 2 days
4) 29,800 jobs lost in New York state


How does protection help prepare for tropical storms?

- Websites like announce precautions


How does monitoring help prepare for tropical storms?

- UGS and other satellite systems track storms.
- Used tidal measuring devices for hurricane Sandy.


How does prediction help prepare for tropical storms?

- Satellites can track storms but is never 100% accurate.


How does planning help prepare for tropical storms?

- Hurricane hot spots can design buildings with storms in mind, such as using wind proof tiles


Give 3 facts/figures regarding the response to hurricane sandy.

1) Red cross provided $131.1 million
2) FEMA* provided food, money + shelter
3) FEMA* coordinated the response and gave money
*FEMA = Federal emergency management agency)


Name an example of Thunderstorms in the UK

2004 thunderstorms caused fatalities and disruption


Name an example of wind and rain in the UK

2014 flooding after rain and snow. 21000 without power


Name an example of a heatwave in the UK

2003: 20000 people died in Europe


Name an example of Drought in the UK

2012: hosepipe ban was issued


When did hurricane Sandy make landfall?

29th October 2012


When did hurricane Catarina make landfall?

28th March 2004


What was odd about hurricane Catarina?

- It was in the southern hemisphere so it shouldn't travel west
- Santa Catarina was very poor with poorly built homes


How strong were the winds in storm Desmond

81 mph


How much rainfall occurred in 24 hours with Storm Desmond?

34cm - a UK record


When did storm Desmond hit?

5th and 6th December 2015


What 3 other factors resulted in the severe flooding in Cumbria floods of Dec 2015?

1) Heavy rainfall in the Autumn left the ground saturated
2) Steep hillsides resulted in a short lag time
3) Cockermouth was at the confluence of the river Cocker and the river Derwent, creating a 'bottle neck'.


Name 3 social impacts of Storm Desmond.

1) 1 person died
2) 1000 people evacuated
3) 40 schools were shut


Name 3 economic impacts of Storm Desmond.

1) £3 bn damage
2) Insurance companies couldn't cover all the claims
3) A train to Glasgow was left stranded


Name 3 environmetal impacts of Storm Desmond.

1) Trees ripped off river banks
2) A waterfall formed at Malham Cove for the first time
3) Rubbish had risen up in the flood and was left behind


What is afforestation and how does it stop flooding?

- Trees are planted near to the river
- Intercepts water flowing into the river
- low cost and helps the environment


What is planning and how does it stop flooding?

- Local government control on development
- Houses not built on or near a floodplain
- Reduces the chance of damage, but there is a shortage of housing in the UK


What is river engineering and how does it stop flooding?

- Widening or deepening the river channel
- Allows more discharge down the river
- Prevents flooding where it is implemented, but increases downstream


Besides Afforestation, Planning and River Engineering, what are the other 6 hazard management strategies for extreme weather in the UK?

1) Managed flooding
2) Road gritting
3) Sand bags
4) Dams
5) Snow Ploughs
6) Boarding up windows