Week 1 Flashcards Preview

Renal > Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (80):
1

What is osmolarity?

The number of osmotically active particles in a solution

2

Which two factors are needed to calculate the osmolarity?

Concentration and the number of particles the substance breaks down to

3

What happens to a RBC place in a isotonic solution?

Nothing

4

What happens to a RBC placed in a hypertonic solution?

It wil shrink

5

What happens to a RBC places in a hypotonic solution?

It will swell

6

What two compartments does total body water exist in?

Intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid

7

What does extracellular fluid consist of?

Plasma, interstitial fluid, lymph and transcellular fluid

8

When does electrolyte balance occur?

When rate of gains = rate of loss

9

Name 4 functions of the kidney?

Excretion - of waste and drugs
Regulation - of body fluid, ions and BP
Endocrine - Synthesis of renin, Epo,
Metabolism - Vit D metabolism, hormones

10

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

11

What are the two types of nephron?

Cortical and juxtamedullary

12

Where does renal pyramid drain to?

Renal pelvis

13

What % of nephrons are cortical and juxtamedullary?

Cortical - 80%, juxtamedullary - 20%

14

What are podocytes?

Modified epithelial cells

15

What % of plasma is not filtered?

80%

16

How do you calculate rate of filtration of a substance?

Concentration in plasma x GFR

17

How do you calculate rate of excretion of a substance?

Concentration in urine x urine flow rate

18

What does rate of reabsorption =?

Rate of filtration - rate of excretion

19

What does rate of secretion =?

Rate of exertion - rate of filtration

20

What is the overall pressure of filtration?

About 10mmHg

21

What is the glomerular filtration rate?

Rate at which protein free plasma is filtered from the golmeruli into the bowman's capsule per unit time

22

How do you calculate the GFR?

Kf (filtration coefficient) x net filtration pressure

23

What is a normal GFR?

125ml/min

24

What is the major determinant of GFR?

Glomerular capillary fluid pressure

25

How does vasoconstriction affect GFR?

Decreases it

26

If arterial BP falls how does that affect GFR?

Decreases it

27

What is plasma clearance?

The volume of plasma cleared of a substance per minute

28

How do you calculate clearance?

Rate of excretion of X/Plasma concentration of x

or

[X]urine x Vurine/ [X]plasma

29

What substances can be measured to determine GFR?

Inulin and creatinine

30

When does clearance = 0?

When a substance is filtered and completely reabsorbed

31

When does clearance = GFR?

When all of filtered substance is excreted

32

When does clearance > GFR?

When substances are filtered, secreted and not reabsorbed

33

When is clearance < GFR?

When substances are filtered, pertly reabsorbed and not secreted

34

Which kidney lies higher?

The left

35

Which ribs protect the kidney?

Floating 11 +12

36

Where do the kidneys lie in relation of the quadratus lumborum?

Anterior

37

Where does lymph from the kidneys drain?

Lumbar nodes

38

Where does lymph from the ureter drain?

Lumbar and iliac nodes

39

What does medulla contain?

Renal pyramids

40

What gives the medulla its striated appearance?

Collecting ducts

41

What path does urine take as it drains?

Nephrons - Collecting duct - Minor calyx - Major calyx - Renal pelvis - ureter

42

3 common Sites of ureteric obstruction?

Pelviuriteric junction
Ureter crossing common iliac artery
Ureteric oriffce

43

What supplies glomerulus?

Afferent arteriole

44

What is the name for loops of blood vessels in the medulla?

Vasa recta

45

What lines the distal convoluted tubule?

Columnar epithelium

46

Which cells secrete rennin?

Juxtaglomerular cells

47

What cell lines most of the urinary tract?

Transitional epithelium

48

3 parts of male urethra?

Prostatic, membranous, penile

49

How much of the seminal fluid volume comes from the prostate?

About 50%

50

Where do ureters pass in relation to the common ilia vessels?

Anterior

51

What muscle forms the bladder wall?

Detrusor muscle

52

Why does the internal urethral sphincter in males contract during ejaculation?

To prevent retrograde ejaculation

53

What are the two routes of catheterisation?

Urethral, suprapubic

54

Which zone of the prostate causes most cancer?

Peripheral

55

What are the 3 cylinders of tissue in the penis?

Corpus cavernosum x2 , corpus spongiosum

56

What is the blood supply to the scrotum?

Internal pudenal artery

57

Where does lymph from scrotum and testes drain?

Inguinal lymph nodes

58

Where does lymph from the testes drain?

To lumbar nodes

59

Is golmerulonephritis usually diffuse or focal?

Diffuse

60

What causes pylonephritis?

Bacterial infection

61

Commonest bacteria in pylonephritis?

E. coli

62

Most common cause of urethral obstruction in males?

Prostatic disease

63

What stain may show TB mycobacteria?

Zeehl neilsen stain

64

What type of bacteria usually causes cystitis?

Coliforms

65

What can a schistosomiasis infection predispose you to?

Urethral malignancy - SCC

66

Main causes of hydronephrosis?

Obstruction and reflux

67

What does ascending limb of the loop of hence reabsorb?

Na and Cl

68

What is the descending limb highly permeable to?

Water

69

What do loop diuretics block?

Triple co transporter

70

What is agenesis?

Absence of one or both of the kidney

71

What complication may be seen in pregnancy In a baby with renal agenesis?

Too little amniotic fluid

72

What is infantile polycystic kidney disease inherited?

Autosomal recessive

73

How is adult polycystic disease inherited?

Autosomal dominant

74

What benign kidney tumour may cause secondary hypertension?

Juxtaglomerular cell tumour

75

What does renal cell carcinoma arise from?

Tubular epithelium

76

Where is renal cell ca likely to spread?

Renal vein

77

What is the commonest symptom of transitional cell carcinoma?

Haematuria

78

What is late collecting duct permeable to and when?

Water in presence of ADH

79

What initiates mictruition reflex?

Stretch receptors

80

What drain the vessel leaves the glomerulus?

Efferent arterioles