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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (127):
1

main function of lymphocytes

immunity

2

types of agranulocytes

lymphocytes
monocytes

3

blood doping

remove 1 L blood >> add erythropoeitin (EPO) >> wait 45 days and inject packed cells back into body

4

vasoconstriction

aka stenosis
indicates a narrowed lumen

5

why is a high fever a problem?

proteins the brain begin to denature

6

types of carbohydrates

monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides

7

where are formed elements produced?

trabeculae at epiphysis near the metaphysis in the red marrow

8

what is significant about a long bone fracture?

contains yellow marrow >> can cause fat embolus

9

2 main types of lymphocytes

B lymphocytes
T lymphocytes

10

internal respiration

gas exchange between a systemic capillary and a body cell

11

chemical structure of protein

CHON

12

monophyletic theory

theory that all blood lines are derived from one cell (ColonyFormingUnit-Spleen)

13

suppressor T cell

weakens body's immune response
*Crohn's disease example

14

complications of blood doping

due to high viscosity
risk of CVA, MI

15

in vivo

inside the body

16

in vitro

outside the body

17

total blood volume

5 L

18

hemostasis

blood clotting
coagulation

19

heparin

anticoagulant that can be used in vitro (to flush an IV access point and keep it open) and in vivo

20

vitamin important in hemopoeisis

folic acid

21

ASA

aspirin
acetylsalycylic acid
anticoagulant

22

types of plasma proteins

albumin
globulin
fibrinogin

23

primary function of a neutrophil

first WBC at the site of infection

24

least common blood type

O+

25

alveolar macrophages/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes

macrophage in lung

26

what causes diarrhea?

macrophages send dead pathogens to the lymphatic ducts, which then transport them to the digestive tract in large numbers

27

medullary (marrow) cavity

contains yellow marrow

28

chemotaxis

movement of chemicals

29

cellular respiration

glucose + o2 produces 38 ATP
glucose without o2 (anaerobic) produces

30

most common formed element

erythrocyte

31

what does PMNL mean?

many form nucleus >> neutrophils take many forms

32

when measuring the hematocrit, you are measuring what portion of the centrifuged blood?

formed elements >> RBC, WBC, and platelets

33

rarest WBC

basophil

34

formed element with no nucleus, what does this indicate?

erythrocyte
amitotic - does not divide

35

size of erythrocyte

7.5 microns

36

name the specialized macrophages

alveolar/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes
microglia
kuppfer cells

37

2 parts of hemoglobin

Iro (Fe)
Protein Globin

38

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)

acquired condition resulting in the inability to coagulate - frequently present secondary to sepsis or blood transfusion

39

when a monocyte is extracellular, it is called a ____________.

macrophage (giant eater)

40

external respiration

gas exchange between an avleolar capillary and RBC

41

fibrin

fibrionogen that has been convered via prothrombin
insoluble >> causes clots to form

42

MHC

Major Histocompatability Complex
indicates ability to donate to someone

43

why is it better to give someone with hypoglycemia orange juice rather than pure surgar water?

OJ is composed of the monosaccharide fructose, where table sugar is a disaccharide. The disaccharide must be absorbed before it can be used and would take longer.

44

serotonin is a _______. give an example of a common drug used in practice that works on serotonin.

neurotransmitter
SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

45

percentage of blacks with sickle cell

8-10%

46

basophils contain local hormones called _________.

prostaglandins

47

mesoderm

muscle
bone
cartilage
blood
all connective tissue

48

erythropoeitin

renal hormone that increases RBC production

49

breakdown the term basophil

basic loving

50

main contents of plasma

proteins
carbohydrates
electrolytes
H2O
hormones

51

universal receiver

AB

52

by definition, which sex is more anemic?

females

53

diapedesis

aka integration
process of monocyte moving extracellularly >> becomes a macrophage and walks to kill pathogen

54

kuppfer cells

macrophage in liver and GI tract

55

clot versus embolus

clot is stationary
embolus is moving

56

how does the spleen function in breakdown of RBCs?

hemoglobin into iron + globin + stercobilinogen

57

plasma is _______ % of centrifuged blood, while the formed elements make up _____ %.

55%
45%

58

prostaglandin

secretory granule found in basophils

59

types of granulocytes

neutrophil
basophil
acidophil/eosinophil

60

why is a sudden low fever a problem?

indicates septic shock

61

formed element with many shapes and sizes

leukocyte

62

is fibrinogen soluble or insoluble?

soluble

63

largest formed element

monocyte

64

endoderm

guts
glands
viscera

65

most common blood type

AB-

66

disaccharides

sucrose (table sugar)

67

why is sickle cell disease a problem?

RBC is misshapen and cannot transport oxygen properly. the misshapen cells cause blockages

68

formed elements

Erythrocyte = RBC
Leukocyte = WBC
Thrombocyte = platelet

69

ectoderm produces...

epidermis
nervous tissue
lens of eye

70

a monocyte is shaped like a....

kidney/horseshoe/indention

71

primary function of thrombocytes

clotting

72

hemopoeisis

blood cell formation

73

types of leukocytes

granulocytes
agranulocytes

74

two sizes of lymphocytes

small, large

75

types of T lymphocytes

helper T
killer T
memory T
supressor T

76

what does histamine do?

act on inflammation by increasing capillary permeability >> fluid leaks out and causes swelling

77

amorphic

lacking form

78

CNS is composed of.....

brain, brain stem, spinal cord, CN I and CN II

79

4 blood types

A, B, AB, O

80

memory T cell

responsible for primary and secondary immune response to a stimulus
*bee sting example

81

protein pigment in an erythrocyte / RBC

hemoglobin

82

metal important in hemopoeisis

iron

83

Helper T cell AKA

CD4

84

vitamin essential in coagulation

vitamin K

85

chemical structure of carbohydrates

C H O

86

clinical significance of RBC lifespan

A1C measurement

87

glycogen

storage form of gluose

88

most common leukocyte

neutrophil

89

when a basophil is extravascular, it is called a.....

mast cell or histocyte

90

what is the clinical significance of an antihistamine on hypertension?

antihistamines take extracellular volume and move them intracellularly which causes an increase in BP

91

most abundant plasma protein

albumin

92

what is the function of an eosinophil/acidophil?

antihistamine
antiparasitic

93

rarest formed element

leukocyte

94

# leukocytes per cubic mm

6 to 10 K/mm3

95

smallest formed element

thrombocytes

96

germ layers

ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

97

agglutination

blood clumping
forms rolls of RBCs that stick together like roll of donuts

98

# thrombocytes per cubic mm

125 to 250 k/mm3

99

erythrocytopenia

decreased RBC count
aka anemia

100

neutrophil AKA.....

polymorphonucleous leukocyte (PMNL)

101

lifespan of RBC

+- 120 days

102

what happens to a megakaryocyte when a thrombocyte is needed?

a piece breaks off to become a thrombocyte

103

types of B lymphocytes

plasma cells
memory cells

104

types of prostaglandins in a basophil

heparin
serotonin
histamine

105

is fibrin soluble or insoluble

insoluble

106

enzyme ___________ comes from the ________ and converts fibrinogen to ________

prothrombin
live
fibrin

107

polysaccharides

chains of saccharies
glycogen

108

purulent discharge is composed of dead

neutrophils

109

universal donor

O

110

where do old RBCs go?

spleen

111

neutrophil takes _______ stain

neutral

112

If a patient has an autoimmune disease, will their suppressor T count be low or high?

low - the autoimmune disease (self recognizes self as nonself and attacks) is active because the suppressor T count is low; therefore the body is not suppressing it's own immune response

113

stercobilinogen

formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin
gives color to bile and stool

114

microglia and why it's necessary

macrophage in CNS >> does not have lymphatic glands to remove waste

115

polyphyletic theory

theory that each blood line has it's own stem cell

116

eosinophils would take a _______ stain

red

117

megakaryocyte

precursor cell to thrombocyte located in marrow
very large !

118

notable visual characteristic of a lymphocyte

ring of cytoplasm

119

# erythrocytes per cubic mm

males: 4.5 to 6 million / mm3
females: 3.7 to 5.5 million/mm3

120

Acid Base Formula

CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + CO3 -

121

pH of blood

7.35 to 7.45

122

Rh factor

+ or - indicates presence or absence of rhesus factor

123

combination that would cause hemolytic disease of newborn

Rh - mother
Rh + father
SECOND PREGNANCY

124

normal body temperature: anal, axillary, orally

oral 98.6 F
anal 99.6 F
axillary 97.6 F

125

AIDS is essential HIV with this specific lab value

low helper T count

126

blood is composed of these two groups

plasma
formed elements

127

monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose