Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (127):
main function of lymphocytes
types of agranulocytes
remove 1 L blood >> add erythropoeitin (EPO) >> wait 45 days and inject packed cells back into body
indicates a narrowed lumen
why is a high fever a problem?
proteins the brain begin to denature
types of carbohydrates
where are formed elements produced?
trabeculae at epiphysis near the metaphysis in the red marrow
what is significant about a long bone fracture?
contains yellow marrow >> can cause fat embolus
2 main types of lymphocytes
gas exchange between a systemic capillary and a body cell
chemical structure of protein
theory that all blood lines are derived from one cell (ColonyFormingUnit-Spleen)
suppressor T cell
weakens body's immune response
*Crohn's disease example
complications of blood doping
due to high viscosity
risk of CVA, MI
inside the body
outside the body
total blood volume
anticoagulant that can be used in vitro (to flush an IV access point and keep it open) and in vivo
vitamin important in hemopoeisis
types of plasma proteins
primary function of a neutrophil
first WBC at the site of infection
least common blood type
alveolar macrophages/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes
macrophage in lung
what causes diarrhea?
macrophages send dead pathogens to the lymphatic ducts, which then transport them to the digestive tract in large numbers
medullary (marrow) cavity
contains yellow marrow
movement of chemicals
glucose + o2 produces 38 ATP
glucose without o2 (anaerobic) produces
most common formed element
what does PMNL mean?
many form nucleus >> neutrophils take many forms
when measuring the hematocrit, you are measuring what portion of the centrifuged blood?
formed elements >> RBC, WBC, and platelets
formed element with no nucleus, what does this indicate?
amitotic - does not divide
size of erythrocyte
name the specialized macrophages
alveolar/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes
2 parts of hemoglobin
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)
acquired condition resulting in the inability to coagulate - frequently present secondary to sepsis or blood transfusion
when a monocyte is extracellular, it is called a ____________.
macrophage (giant eater)
gas exchange between an avleolar capillary and RBC
fibrionogen that has been convered via prothrombin
insoluble >> causes clots to form
Major Histocompatability Complex
indicates ability to donate to someone
why is it better to give someone with hypoglycemia orange juice rather than pure surgar water?
OJ is composed of the monosaccharide fructose, where table sugar is a disaccharide. The disaccharide must be absorbed before it can be used and would take longer.
serotonin is a _______. give an example of a common drug used in practice that works on serotonin.
SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
percentage of blacks with sickle cell
basophils contain local hormones called _________.
all connective tissue
renal hormone that increases RBC production
breakdown the term basophil
main contents of plasma
by definition, which sex is more anemic?
process of monocyte moving extracellularly >> becomes a macrophage and walks to kill pathogen
macrophage in liver and GI tract
clot versus embolus
clot is stationary
embolus is moving
how does the spleen function in breakdown of RBCs?
hemoglobin into iron + globin + stercobilinogen
plasma is _______ % of centrifuged blood, while the formed elements make up _____ %.
secretory granule found in basophils
types of granulocytes
why is a sudden low fever a problem?
indicates septic shock
formed element with many shapes and sizes
is fibrinogen soluble or insoluble?
largest formed element
most common blood type
sucrose (table sugar)
why is sickle cell disease a problem?
RBC is misshapen and cannot transport oxygen properly. the misshapen cells cause blockages
Erythrocyte = RBC
Leukocyte = WBC
Thrombocyte = platelet
lens of eye
a monocyte is shaped like a....
primary function of thrombocytes
blood cell formation
types of leukocytes
two sizes of lymphocytes
types of T lymphocytes
what does histamine do?
act on inflammation by increasing capillary permeability >> fluid leaks out and causes swelling
CNS is composed of.....
brain, brain stem, spinal cord, CN I and CN II
4 blood types
A, B, AB, O
memory T cell
responsible for primary and secondary immune response to a stimulus
*bee sting example
protein pigment in an erythrocyte / RBC
metal important in hemopoeisis
Helper T cell AKA
vitamin essential in coagulation
chemical structure of carbohydrates
C H O
clinical significance of RBC lifespan
storage form of gluose
most common leukocyte
when a basophil is extravascular, it is called a.....
mast cell or histocyte
what is the clinical significance of an antihistamine on hypertension?
antihistamines take extracellular volume and move them intracellularly which causes an increase in BP
most abundant plasma protein
what is the function of an eosinophil/acidophil?
rarest formed element
# leukocytes per cubic mm
6 to 10 K/mm3
smallest formed element
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
forms rolls of RBCs that stick together like roll of donuts
# thrombocytes per cubic mm
125 to 250 k/mm3
decreased RBC count
polymorphonucleous leukocyte (PMNL)
lifespan of RBC
+- 120 days
what happens to a megakaryocyte when a thrombocyte is needed?
a piece breaks off to become a thrombocyte
types of B lymphocytes
types of prostaglandins in a basophil
is fibrin soluble or insoluble
enzyme ___________ comes from the ________ and converts fibrinogen to ________
chains of saccharies
purulent discharge is composed of dead
where do old RBCs go?
neutrophil takes _______ stain
If a patient has an autoimmune disease, will their suppressor T count be low or high?
low - the autoimmune disease (self recognizes self as nonself and attacks) is active because the suppressor T count is low; therefore the body is not suppressing it's own immune response
formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin
gives color to bile and stool
microglia and why it's necessary
macrophage in CNS >> does not have lymphatic glands to remove waste
theory that each blood line has it's own stem cell
eosinophils would take a _______ stain
precursor cell to thrombocyte located in marrow
very large !
notable visual characteristic of a lymphocyte
ring of cytoplasm
# erythrocytes per cubic mm
males: 4.5 to 6 million / mm3
females: 3.7 to 5.5 million/mm3
Acid Base Formula
CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + CO3 -
pH of blood
7.35 to 7.45
+ or - indicates presence or absence of rhesus factor
combination that would cause hemolytic disease of newborn
Rh - mother
Rh + father
normal body temperature: anal, axillary, orally
oral 98.6 F
anal 99.6 F
axillary 97.6 F
AIDS is essential HIV with this specific lab value
low helper T count
blood is composed of these two groups