Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (127):
total blood volume
pH of blood
7.35 to 7.45
protein pigment in an erythrocyte / RBC
2 parts of hemoglobin
chemical structure of protein
where do old RBCs go?
how does the spleen function in breakdown of RBCs?
hemoglobin into iron + globin + stercobilinogen
formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin
gives color to bile and stool
vitamin essential in coagulation
4 blood types
A, B, AB, O
most common blood type
least common blood type
+ or - indicates presence or absence of rhesus factor
combination that would cause hemolytic disease of newborn
Rh - mother
Rh + father
Erythrocyte = RBC
Leukocyte = WBC
Thrombocyte = platelet
most common formed element
size of erythrocyte
by definition, which sex is more anemic?
# erythrocytes per cubic mm
males: 4.5 to 6 million / mm3
females: 3.7 to 5.5 million/mm3
formed element with no nucleus, what does this indicate?
amitotic - does not divide
decreased RBC count
lifespan of RBC
+- 120 days
clinical significance of RBC lifespan
formed element with many shapes and sizes
# leukocytes per cubic mm
6 to 10 K/mm3
rarest formed element
types of leukocytes
types of granulocytes
types of agranulocytes
smallest formed element
# thrombocytes per cubic mm
125 to 250 k/mm3
primary function of thrombocytes
clot versus embolus
clot is stationary
embolus is moving
precursor cell to thrombocyte located in marrow
very large !
what happens to a megakaryocyte when a thrombocyte is needed?
a piece breaks off to become a thrombocyte
medullary (marrow) cavity
contains yellow marrow
what is significant about a long bone fracture?
contains yellow marrow >> can cause fat embolus
where are formed elements produced?
trabeculae at epiphysis near the metaphysis in the red marrow
blood cell formation
metal important in hemopoeisis
vitamin important in hemopoeisis
theory that all blood lines are derived from one cell (ColonyFormingUnit-Spleen)
theory that each blood line has it's own stem cell
neutrophil takes _______ stain
polymorphonucleous leukocyte (PMNL)
what does PMNL mean?
many form nucleus >> neutrophils take many forms
most common leukocyte
primary function of a neutrophil
first WBC at the site of infection
purulent discharge is composed of dead
breakdown the term basophil
basophils contain local hormones called _________.
types of prostaglandins in a basophil
anticoagulant that can be used in vitro (to flush an IV access point and keep it open) and in vivo
outside the body
inside the body
secretory granule found in basophils
when a basophil is extravascular, it is called a.....
mast cell or histocyte
what does histamine do?
act on inflammation by increasing capillary permeability >> fluid leaks out and causes swelling
serotonin is a _______. give an example of a common drug used in practice that works on serotonin.
SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
eosinophils would take a _______ stain
what is the function of an eosinophil/acidophil?
what is the clinical significance of an antihistamine on hypertension?
antihistamines take extracellular volume and move them intracellularly which causes an increase in BP
two sizes of lymphocytes
notable visual characteristic of a lymphocyte
ring of cytoplasm
main function of lymphocytes
2 main types of lymphocytes
types of B lymphocytes
types of T lymphocytes
Helper T cell AKA
AIDS is essential HIV with this specific lab value
low helper T count
memory T cell
responsible for primary and secondary immune response to a stimulus
*bee sting example
suppressor T cell
weakens body's immune response
*Crohn's disease example
If a patient has an autoimmune disease, will their suppressor T count be low or high?
low - the autoimmune disease (self recognizes self as nonself and attacks) is active because the suppressor T count is low; therefore the body is not suppressing it's own immune response
largest formed element
a monocyte is shaped like a....
when a monocyte is extracellular, it is called a ____________.
macrophage (giant eater)
name the specialized macrophages
alveolar/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes
alveolar macrophages/dust cells/Type III pneumocytes
macrophage in lung
microglia and why it's necessary
macrophage in CNS >> does not have lymphatic glands to remove waste
macrophage in liver and GI tract
CNS is composed of.....
brain, brain stem, spinal cord, CN I and CN II
process of monocyte moving extracellularly >> becomes a macrophage and walks to kill pathogen
what causes diarrhea?
macrophages send dead pathogens to the lymphatic ducts, which then transport them to the digestive tract in large numbers
blood is composed of these two groups
main contents of plasma
chemical structure of carbohydrates
C H O
types of plasma proteins
most abundant plasma protein
enzyme ___________ comes from the ________ and converts fibrinogen to ________
is fibrinogen soluble or insoluble?
is fibrin soluble or insoluble
fibrionogen that has been convered via prothrombin
insoluble >> causes clots to form
types of carbohydrates
glucose, fructose, galactose
sucrose (table sugar)
chains of saccharies
storage form of gluose
why is it better to give someone with hypoglycemia orange juice rather than pure surgar water?
OJ is composed of the monosaccharide fructose, where table sugar is a disaccharide. The disaccharide must be absorbed before it can be used and would take longer.
plasma is _______ % of centrifuged blood, while the formed elements make up _____ %.
when measuring the hematocrit, you are measuring what portion of the centrifuged blood?
formed elements >> RBC, WBC, and platelets
normal body temperature: anal, axillary, orally
oral 98.6 F
anal 99.6 F
axillary 97.6 F
why is a high fever a problem?
proteins the brain begin to denature
why is a sudden low fever a problem?
indicates septic shock
percentage of blacks with sickle cell
why is sickle cell disease a problem?
RBC is misshapen and cannot transport oxygen properly. the misshapen cells cause blockages
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC)
acquired condition resulting in the inability to coagulate - frequently present secondary to sepsis or blood transfusion
remove 1 L blood >> add erythropoeitin (EPO) >> wait 45 days and inject packed cells back into body
complications of blood doping
due to high viscosity
risk of CVA, MI
renal hormone that increases RBC production
Acid Base Formula
CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + CO3 -
gas exchange between a systemic capillary and a body cell
gas exchange between an avleolar capillary and RBC
glucose + o2 produces 38 ATP
glucose without o2 (anaerobic) produces
forms rolls of RBCs that stick together like roll of donuts
movement of chemicals
indicates a narrowed lumen
Major Histocompatability Complex
indicates ability to donate to someone
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
lens of eye