Flashcards in Week 1 - Hematology Deck (17):
List possible causes of Vitamin B12 deficiency
Nutritional deficiency - vegetarianism/veganism
Proton pump inhibitors
Discuss the link between folate/B12 deficiency and depression.
Low levels of folate or vitamin B12 can disrupt transmethylation reaction, leading to accumulation of homocysteine and impaired metabolism of neutrotransmitters, phospholipids, myelin, and receptors.
Hematocrit is __________
proportion of RBCs to plasma in the blood
List CBC normal values for: Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, WBC, RBC
Hematocrit: 40-54% males, 37-47% (females)
WBC: 4,000 - 10,000/mm3
RBC: 4.6-6.2 million/microL males, 4.2-6.4 million/microL females
ESR can indicate _______ because _________
certain inflammatory diseases yield abnormal proteins that stick to RBCs causing them to settle out of plasma more rapidly
Normal range for fasting plasma glucose:
Normal range for total cholesterol
High homocysteine levels can cause _________
1) cholesterol to change into oxidized LDL->artery damage
2) blood to clot more easily than it should -> blood vessel blockage
List non-specific signs and symptoms of anemia
weakness, fatigue, malaise, skin pallor, skin thining, skin elasticity, brittle nails, angina pectoris, headache, faintness, dim vision, vertigo, tinnitus
If anemia is suspected, the first consideration should be ________
Anemia can be observed by inspecting ______
conjunctiva, gingiva, nail beds, tongue
Which test can indicate macrocytic or microcytic anemia?
MCV, peripheral blood smear
Macrocytic hypochromic anemia can indicate ________
folate or B12 deficiency
Microcytic hypochromic anemia can indicate _______
What will be uniquely present in the blood in B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia?
Anti-intrinsic factor antibodies
What test should be conducted if blood loss is suspected?