Flashcards in Week 1 - Wet Room Deck (50):
What is the most common type of joint seen between most bones in the skull?
What 3 parts is the skull divided into?
The facial skull (visceral-cranium)
What makes up the structure of a skull bone?
Compact bone on the outside
Diploe in the middle
Dipleo is the spongy bone
It houses red marrow
What suture lies on the border of the occipital, left and right parietal and the temporal bones?
Where does the sagittal suture lie?
Unites the right and left parietal bones
Where does the coronal suture lie?
Unites the frontal with the left and right parietal bones
What type of bones is the facial skeleton made up of mainly?
What are the three fossae of the floor of the skull?
Anterior cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa
What two structures pass through the foramen magnum?
Right and left vertebral arteries
What are the sockets for the eyeball called?
What are the air sinuses?
They are the air spaces present within some skull bones which play a role in decreasing the weight of the skull.
Air sinuses are present in bones around the nasal cavity and open into it.
What are the 3 small bones that play a role in hearing?
What are their individual colloquial names?
Hammer, anvil and stirrup
Where are the ear ossicles found?
With in the petrous part of the temporal bone.
This is within the external auditory meatus
Describe the extent of the scalp
The scalp extends anteriorly until the supraorbital margins, posteriorly until the superior nuchal lines and laterally as far as the zygomatic arches
Which two bones form the zygomatic arch?
Anteriorly = The zygomatic bone
Posteriorly = The temporal bone
What type of joint is present between the two bones of the zygomatic arch?
Name the 5 layers of the scalp
Connective tissue (dense)
Aponeurosis of the occipitofrontal muscle (epicranial aponeurosis)
Loose connective tissue
What is the epicranial aponeurosis?
Makes up the third layer of the scalp.
This aponeurosis connects the anterior (frontal) and the posterior (occipital) bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle
The cutaneous innervation of the scalp has two sources describe the source in the anterior part of the scalp
Nerve supply by branches of the trigeminal nerve.
All 3 branches: ophthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2), Mandibular (V3) supply the scalp.
What is the cutaneous innervation of the posterior half of the scalp?
Nerve supply from cutaneous branches of cervical spinal nerves C2 and C3.
Both the anterior and posterior rami of these spinal nerves supply the scalp
What dermatome does C1 supply?
C1 has almost no dermatomal innervation
What structure forms from the ventral rami of C5 to T1?
Brachial plexus supplying the arms
In which layer of the scalp are the blood vessels present?
Would wounds to the scalp bleed profusely or sparingly and why?
Dense connective tissue prevents vasoconstriction of blood vessels
The scalp has a rich anastomosis of blood vessels, most of which originate from where?
Which artery in the neck is the superficial temporal artery a branch of?
Smaller terminal branch of the external carotid artery.
What are emissary veins?
In addition to anastomosing with each other, scalp veins anastomose with diploid veins in the skull bones (and through theses to the venous sinuses of the brain) through valveless veins called emissary veins.
What is the lymphatic drainage of the scalp?
There are no lymph nodes in the scalp.
Lymph drains away from scalp into lymph nodes of the head and neck.
Give a brief introduction to the muscles of facial expression
The muscles of facial expression are a group of muscles that are important in communication, particularly emotion.
Some of the muscles in this group also have functional roles in controlling the opening/ closing of openings in the face (eyes, nares, mouth).
The muscles of facial expression lie within the superficial fascia of the face (and neck).
How do the attachments of the muscles of facial expression differ to skeletal muscles?
Skeletal muscles = bone to bone across joints
Muscles of facial expressions connect from bone or fascia to the skin.
Which nerve innervates all the muscles of facial expression via its terminal branches?
Facial nerve (Cr. N. VII)
As it leaves the cranial cavity, from which foramen does the Facial nerve emerge onto the side of the face?
What two bony points exist on either side of the stylomastoid foramen?
Which nerve enters the parotid gland and splits into its terminal branches?
These branches emerge from the anterior border of the gland and travel on the side of the face to innervate the muscles of facial expression.
What are the 3 salivary glands?
Parotid salivary gland
Submandibular salivary gland
Sublingual salivary gland
What exists in addition to the 3 named salivary glands?
Numerous small and un-named salivary glands which are found in the soft palate, checks and tongue and which empty their secretions into the mouth
What is the extent of the parotid gland?
The long base of the gland overlies the ANTERIOR BORDER OF THE STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE
The gland extends superiorly to the ZYGOMATIC ARCH
Inferiorly it extends to the ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE
The apex of the pyramid lies over the MASSETER
Posteriorly the gland extends to just anterior to the EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
What type of gland is the parotid gland?
What nerve branches can you see emerging from the anterior border of the parotid?
Terminal Branches of the facial nerve:
To Zanzibar By Motor Car
Where does the parotid duct run?
Runs forward superficial to the MASSETER muscle and then pierces the BUCCINATOR muscle to open into the oral cavity
Opposite which upper tooth does the parotid duct open into the mouth
Superior second molar tooth
Name 3 structures which enter and leave the parotid gland
External Carotid artery
Which autonomic innervation does the parotid gland receive?
Parasympathetic is secretomotor
Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic fibres destined for the parotid gland?
Cr. N. IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)
Where does the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland originate from?
The Great Auricular nerve (C2 and C3)
What provides sensory innervation to the face?
Branches of the trigeminal nerve (V cranial nerve)
What are the two main arteries that supply the face and from which artery do they derive?
Superficial temporal artery
External carotid artery
What does the facial artery wind around to reach the face?
What muscle on the side of the face lies immediately posterior to the facial artery as it enters onto the face?