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Flashcards in Week 1 - Wet Room Deck (50):
1

What is the most common type of joint seen between most bones in the skull?

Fibrous joint

2

What 3 parts is the skull divided into?

The neuro-cranium
The facial skull (visceral-cranium)
Mandible

3

What makes up the structure of a skull bone?

Compact bone on the outside
Diploe in the middle

Dipleo is the spongy bone
It houses red marrow

4

What suture lies on the border of the occipital, left and right parietal and the temporal bones?

Lambdoid suture

5

Where does the sagittal suture lie?

Unites the right and left parietal bones

6

Where does the coronal suture lie?

Unites the frontal with the left and right parietal bones

7

What type of bones is the facial skeleton made up of mainly?

Irregular bones

8

What are the three fossae of the floor of the skull?

Anterior cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa

9

What two structures pass through the foramen magnum?

Spinal Cord
Right and left vertebral arteries

10

What are the sockets for the eyeball called?

Orbits

11

What are the air sinuses?

They are the air spaces present within some skull bones which play a role in decreasing the weight of the skull.

Air sinuses are present in bones around the nasal cavity and open into it.

12

What are the 3 small bones that play a role in hearing?
What are their individual colloquial names?

Ear ossicles

Hammer, anvil and stirrup

13

Where are the ear ossicles found?

With in the petrous part of the temporal bone.
This is within the external auditory meatus

14

Describe the extent of the scalp

The scalp extends anteriorly until the supraorbital margins, posteriorly until the superior nuchal lines and laterally as far as the zygomatic arches

15

Which two bones form the zygomatic arch?

Anteriorly = The zygomatic bone
Posteriorly = The temporal bone

16

What type of joint is present between the two bones of the zygomatic arch?

Fibrous joint

17

Name the 5 layers of the scalp

Skin

Connective tissue (dense)

Aponeurosis of the occipitofrontal muscle (epicranial aponeurosis)

Loose connective tissue

Pericranium

18

What is the epicranial aponeurosis?

Makes up the third layer of the scalp.

This aponeurosis connects the anterior (frontal) and the posterior (occipital) bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle

19

The cutaneous innervation of the scalp has two sources describe the source in the anterior part of the scalp

Nerve supply by branches of the trigeminal nerve.

All 3 branches: ophthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2), Mandibular (V3) supply the scalp.

20

What is the cutaneous innervation of the posterior half of the scalp?

Nerve supply from cutaneous branches of cervical spinal nerves C2 and C3.

Both the anterior and posterior rami of these spinal nerves supply the scalp

21

What dermatome does C1 supply?

C1 has almost no dermatomal innervation

22

What structure forms from the ventral rami of C5 to T1?

Brachial plexus supplying the arms

23

In which layer of the scalp are the blood vessels present?

Skin

24

Would wounds to the scalp bleed profusely or sparingly and why?

Profusely.

Dense connective tissue prevents vasoconstriction of blood vessels

25

The scalp has a rich anastomosis of blood vessels, most of which originate from where?

ECA

26

Which artery in the neck is the superficial temporal artery a branch of?

Smaller terminal branch of the external carotid artery.

27

What are emissary veins?

In addition to anastomosing with each other, scalp veins anastomose with diploid veins in the skull bones (and through theses to the venous sinuses of the brain) through valveless veins called emissary veins.

28

What is the lymphatic drainage of the scalp?

There are no lymph nodes in the scalp.
Lymph drains away from scalp into lymph nodes of the head and neck.

29

Give a brief introduction to the muscles of facial expression

The muscles of facial expression are a group of muscles that are important in communication, particularly emotion.

Some of the muscles in this group also have functional roles in controlling the opening/ closing of openings in the face (eyes, nares, mouth).

The muscles of facial expression lie within the superficial fascia of the face (and neck).

30

How do the attachments of the muscles of facial expression differ to skeletal muscles?

Skeletal muscles = bone to bone across joints

Muscles of facial expressions connect from bone or fascia to the skin.

31

Which nerve innervates all the muscles of facial expression via its terminal branches?

Facial nerve (Cr. N. VII)

32

As it leaves the cranial cavity, from which foramen does the Facial nerve emerge onto the side of the face?

Stylomastoid foramen

33

What two bony points exist on either side of the stylomastoid foramen?

Styloid process
Mastoid Process

34

Which nerve enters the parotid gland and splits into its terminal branches?

facial nerve

These branches emerge from the anterior border of the gland and travel on the side of the face to innervate the muscles of facial expression.

35

What are the 3 salivary glands?

Parotid salivary gland
Submandibular salivary gland
Sublingual salivary gland

36

What exists in addition to the 3 named salivary glands?

Numerous small and un-named salivary glands which are found in the soft palate, checks and tongue and which empty their secretions into the mouth

37

What is the extent of the parotid gland?

The long base of the gland overlies the ANTERIOR BORDER OF THE STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE

The gland extends superiorly to the ZYGOMATIC ARCH

Inferiorly it extends to the ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE

The apex of the pyramid lies over the MASSETER

Posteriorly the gland extends to just anterior to the EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS

38

What type of gland is the parotid gland?

Exocrine gland

39

What nerve branches can you see emerging from the anterior border of the parotid?

Terminal Branches of the facial nerve:
-Temporal
-Zygomatic
-Buccal
-Marginal
-Cervical

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40

Where does the parotid duct run?

Runs forward superficial to the MASSETER muscle and then pierces the BUCCINATOR muscle to open into the oral cavity

41

Opposite which upper tooth does the parotid duct open into the mouth

Superior second molar tooth

42

Name 3 structures which enter and leave the parotid gland

Facial nerve
External Carotid artery
Retromandibular vein

43

Which autonomic innervation does the parotid gland receive?

Both

Parasympathetic is secretomotor

44

Which cranial nerve carries parasympathetic fibres destined for the parotid gland?

Cr. N. IX (Glossopharyngeal Nerve)

45

Where does the sympathetic innervation to the parotid gland originate from?

The Great Auricular nerve (C2 and C3)

46

What provides sensory innervation to the face?

Branches of the trigeminal nerve (V cranial nerve)

Ophthalmic nerve
Maxillary nerve
Mandibular nerve

47

What are the two main arteries that supply the face and from which artery do they derive?

Facial artery
Superficial temporal artery

External carotid artery

48

What does the facial artery wind around to reach the face?

Mandible

49

What muscle on the side of the face lies immediately posterior to the facial artery as it enters onto the face?

Buccinator

50

Which major vein in the neck do the facial vein and superficial temporal vein drain into?

External Jugular Vein