Week 10 Chapter 12 Leadership in Organisational Settings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 10 Chapter 12 Leadership in Organisational Settings Deck (84):
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Influencing, motivating and enabling others to contribute towards the effectiveness and success of the organisation

Leadership defined

1

The view that leadership is broadly distributed rahter than assigned to one person such that people within the team and organisation lead each other

Shared leadership

2

The view that leadership is broadly distributed, rather than assigned to one person, such that people within the team and organization lead each other. Leadership is plural and informal. Key is participation in innovation and collaboration.

shared leadership

3

Four perspectives of leadership

Competency perspective
Contingency perspective
Transformational perspective
Implicit leadership perspective

4

There are eight leadership Competencies

Personality
Self-concept
Drive
Integrity
Leadership motivation
Knowledge of the business
Cognitive and practical intelligence
Emotional intelligence

5

The skills, knowledge, values, aptitude and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance in a leadership role

Competencies

6

Leadership Competencies - _____

Display high levels of extroversion and conscientiousness

Personality

7

Leadership Competencies - _____-_____ _____,

Possesses a complex, internally consistent and clear concept of themselves as a leader - leader identity

Self-Concept Complex

8

Leadership Competencies - _____,

Is related to high conscientiousness and positive self-concept and characterised by a high need for achievement

Drive

9

Leadership Competencies - _____,

Involves truthfulness and consistency of words and actions that are related to honesty and ethical conduct

Integrity

10

Leadership Competencies - _____ _____

Motivated to lead others and have a strong need for socialised power - power to accomplish organisational goals

Leadership motivation

11

Leadership Competencies - _____ of the _____

Effective leaders possess tacit and explicit knowledge of the business environment in which they operate

Knowledge of the business

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Leadership Competencies - _____ _____

High level of emotional intelligence and can see and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion in themselves and others

Emotional intelligence

13

Leadership Competencies - _____ and _____ _____

Above average cognitive ability to process large amounts of information for complex alternatives and opportunities.

Cognitive and practical intelligence

14

Name this leader competency

This leader is comfortable influencing social settings (extroversion) and is motivate to set, and achieve, high goals for themselves and others (conscientiousness)

Personality

15

The main categories of leadership competencies (competency perspective)

The presonal characteristics that people univerally agree a leader should have: Personality, Self-concept, Drive, Integrity, Leadership motivation, Knowledge of the business, Cognitive and practical intelligence, Emotional intelligence

16

Name this leader competency

This leader has positive self-beliefs and self-evaluation about his or her own leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives (self-efficacy, internal LoC).

Self-concept

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Name this leader competency

The leader's inner motivation to pursue goals and encourage others with theirs

Drive

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Name this leader competency

The competency is based on the values leader's values which provide an anchor for consistency

Integrity

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Name this leader competency

IS characterised by the ability fro thrive in the face of competition

Leadership motivation

20

Name this leader competency

The leader's tacit and explicit knowledge about the company's environment, enables more intuitive decision making

Knowledge of the business

21

Name this leader competency

This leader has a superior ability to analyse a variety of complex alternatives and opportunities and to perform well in real-world settings.

Cognitive and practical intelligence

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Name this leader competency

The leader's ability to monitor his or her own and others' emotions, discriminate among them, and use the information to guide his or her thoughts and actions.

Emotional intelligence

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Builds on integrity competency.

The view that effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values, personality, and self-concept. truly connect with staff.

Authentic leadership

24

Competency perspective limitations

Implies a universal approach
Alternative combinations of competencies might work just as well
Assumes leadership is within the person
But leadership is also about relations with followers
Competencies refer to leadership potential, not performance

25

_____ _____: Effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with and act consistently with their values, personality and self-concept

Authentic Leadership

26

Path-Goal theory leadership style [Originated with expectancy theory of motivation]

Ensures that employees who perform well are more valued than employees who perform poorly it encourages servant leadership.

Paths = employee expectancies
Goals = employee performance

27

_____-_____ Leadership (contingency perspective)

Effective leaders provide the information, support, and other resources, and ensure that rewards are linked to good performance.Several employee and situational contingencies to determine the best leader style

Path-Goal

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Servant leadership

The view that leaders serve followers, rather than vice versa. Leaders help employees to fulfil their needs and are coaches, stewards and facilitators of employee performance

29

The path-goal model specifies two sets of situational variable

employee characteristics
characteristics of the employees work environment

30

_____ leadership:

The view that leaders serve followers, rather than vice versa; leaders help employees fulfil their needs and are coaches, stewards, and facilitators of employee development. ask, "How can I help you?" rather than expect employees to serve them. selfless, egalitarian, humble, nurturing, empathetic, and ethical coaches.

servant

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This perspective is based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership styles depend on the situation

Contingency perspective of leadership

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The contingency perspective is based on

The idea that most appropriate leadership styles depends on the situation.

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Path-Goal Leadership Definition (contingency perspective)

A contingency theory of _____ based on the expectancy theory of _____ [leaders create paths (expectancies) to effective performance (goals) for their employees that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies.

leadership, motivation,

34

There are four leadership styles within the contingency perspective

Directive
Supportive
Participative
Achievement-oriented

35

Name that path-goal leadership style
(contingency perspective)

This leadership style consists of clarifying behaviors that provide psychological structure of subordinates by clarifying performance goals, means and rewards by which performance will be judged. it is the same as task-orientated leadership that highlights the importance of clear role perceptions.

Directive

36

Path-Goal Leadership Styles - _____ (contingency perspective)

In this style the leaders behaviours provide psychological support for employees, People-oriented behaviors - leader is friendly, approachable, makes the work more pleasant, treats employees with respect, shows concern for employees. Same as people-orientated

Supportive

37

Path-Goal Leadership Styles - _____ (contingency perspective)

These behaviours encourage and facilitate employee involvement. Leader consults with employees, asks for suggestions and takes these ideas seriously in making decisions


what is this

Participative

38

Name that path-goal leadership style
(contingency perspective)

This leadership style emphasises behaviours that encourage employees to reach their peak performance Sets challenging goals and expects employees to work to their best abilities, Continuously seeks improvement

Achievement-oriented

39

Path-Goal Leadership Model (contingency perspective)

The leader's _____ (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are influenced by _____ (skill and experience and locus and control) and _____ (task structure and team dynamics) contingencies and determine leader _____ (Employee motivation and satisfaction and Leader acceptance)

behaviours, employee, environmental, effectiveness

40

Evaluating Path-Goal Leadership Model (contingency perspective)

It has Received more research support that other contingency leadership models. Some contingencies e.g. _____ _____ have limited research support. The model may become too complex for practical use

task structure

41

Contingencies of Path-goal Theory states that each of the four leadership styles will be effective in some situations but not others.

Skills and experience
Locus of control
Task structure
Team dynamics

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Contingencies of Path-goal Theory states that each of the four leadership styles will be effective in some situations but not others.

Skill and experience, Locus of Control, Task Structure and Team Dynamics

43

Name that contingencies of Path-goal theory
(contingency perspective)

Uses a combination of directive and supportive leadership for employees who are unskilled. Skilled/experienced - avoid directive leadership

Skill and experience

44

Name that contingencies of Path-goal theory
(contingency perspective)

Internal - control over the environment - prefer participative and achievement oriented leadership styles
External - Believe environmental occurrences are due to luck or fate - prefer directive and supportive leadership

-Locus of control

45

Name that contingencies of Path-goal theory
(contingency perspective)

Non-routine and inexperienced- adopt the directive style to minimise ambiguity
Experienced - adopt participative style to give employees more discretion to achieve challenging goals

Routine - avoid directive style; may require supportive leadership to cope with tedious tasks and lack of control

-Task structure

46

Name that contingencies of Path-goal theory
(contingency perspective)

Low cohesion - use supportive style - Dysfunctional norms - use directive style to counteract

-High cohesion substitutes supportive leadership styles where as performance-oriented team norms act as a
substitute for most leader interventions (directive and possibly achievement style)

-Team dynamics

47

Situational Leadership Model (SLT) (contingency perspective)

Four styles of leaders: _____, _____, _____ and delegating.

- instead of situation is focused on Best style depends on follower ability and motivation (readiness)
- Developed by Hersey and Blanchard - popular theory among practitioners, however the model lacks empirical support

Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating

- distinguished by the amount of directive and supportive behavior provided

48

Situational leadership theory

Leaders vary their style with the readiness of the followers

50

Name this contingency model of leadership

- Best leadership style depends on the level of situational control i.e. degree of power and influence the leader has in a particular position -

- Leadership style is stable and you have a leadership style based on your personality. Earliest contingency theory of leadership

- Leader effectiveness depends on whether the person's natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation

- Limited empirical support but uniquely points out that leaders have a preferred style; leaders not very flexible

Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership (contingency perspective)

Two leadership styles
-people oriented
-task oriented

Situational control is affected by
-leader member relations
-task structure
-position

50

A theory identifying contingencies that either limit a leader's ability to influence subordinates or make a particular leadership style unnecessary

Leadership substitutes


51

Name this contingency model of leadership

Leadership style is stable and you have a leadership style based on your personality. Earliest contingency theory of leadership
- Leader effectiveness depends on whether the person's natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation
- Best leadership style depends on the level of situational control i.e. degree of power and influence the leader has in a particular position
- Limited empirical support but uniquely points out that leaders have a preferred style; leaders not very flexible

Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership (contingency perspective)

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Leadership that helps organisations to achieve their current objectives more efficiently, such as by linking a job performance to valued rewards and enduring that employees have the resources needed to get the job done.

Transactional leadership (Transformational Perspective)

Leading not managing

53

How leaders change teams and organisations by creating, communications and modelling a vision for the organisation or work unit and inspiring employees to strive for that vision by building commitment to the vision

Transformational perspective of leadership

54

Effective leaders improve employee performance and wellbeing in the current situation, Applies contingency leadership theories (e.g. path-goal).

Managerial leadership (Transformational Perspective)

Transformational leadership differs from transactional leadership. Transactional leaders mainly gain compliance by using rewards and penalties, and by negotiating services from employees. Transformational leaders engage employees by appealing to their virtues and aspirations. However, transactional leadership and transformational leadership are not opposites.

55

Transformational v. Charismatic Leaders 1 (Transformational Perspective)

- Some leadership models say charismatic leadership is essential for transformational leadership
- even suggesting that charismatic leadership is the highest degree of transformational leadership
But the emerging view is that charisma is distinct from transformational leadership because

charisma is a personal trait while transformational leadership is a set of behaviours.

Charismatic leaders may be transformational leaders but they can be charismatic without effecting organisational change. Transformational leaders are not necessarily charismatic.

56

_____ v. _____ Leaders 2 (Transformational Perspective)

-Charisma is a personal trait that provides referent power over followers
- doesn't necessarily change the organisation (may even result in greater focus on self-interest).
- Transformational leadership is a set of behaviors that engage followers to bring about change
- builds follower empowerment. Not the same as charisma.

Transformational, Charismatic

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The 4 Elements of transformational leadership model (Transformational Perspective)

Develop a strategic vision,
Communicate the vision,
Model the vision,
Build a commitment to the vision

58

Name this Transformational perspective element

First establish a vision of the company’s future state that engages employees with objectives. This bonds employees together and focuses their energy towards a superordinate organisational goal. It also plays an important role in organisational effectiveness, and the motivational benefits of goal setting.

Develop a strategic vision,

59

Name this Transformational perspective element

This element is for the purpose of building and sharing the vision by communicating meaning and elevating the importance of the visionary goal to employees by framing the message in order to make emotional appeals. This creates a shared mental model of the future, Use symbols, metaphors, symbols to bring the vision to life

Communicate the vision,

It also plays an important role in organisational effectiveness, and the motivational benefits of goal setting.

60

Name this Transformational perspective element

Transformational leaders not only talk about a vision; they enact it - walk the talk. This is important because it builds employee trust in the leader, which makes them more willing to follow.

Model the vision

61

Name this Transformational perspective element

Increased through enthusiastic communicating (words, symbols and stories) and modeling the vision - builds enthusiasm that energises people to adopt the vision, Increased through employee involvement in shaping the shared vision

Leaders also build commitment by involving employees in the process of shaping the organisation’s vision.

Build commitment towards the vision

62

Evaluating Transformational Leadership - (Transformational Perspective)

Transformational leaders make a difference because:

o Subordinates are more satisfied and have higher organisational commitment
o Employees perform better, engage more in organisational citizenship behaviours and make better/more creative decisions.

63

Transformational Leadership Limitations

Transformational leadership is currently the most popular leadership perspective, but it faces challenges:

o Circular logic (Transformational Perspective) Some research defines and measures transformational leadership by how well the leader inspires and engages employees rather than by whether they engage in behaviors that are transformational, so by definition, all transformational leaders are effective.
o Transformational leadership is usually described as universal rather than a contingency-oriented model but recent research shows that transformational leadership is more valuable in some situations than in others

64

Transformational Leadership Limitations

Transformational leadership is currently the most popular leadership perspective, but it faces challenges:

o Circular logic- Some research defines and measures transformational leadership by how well the leader inspires and engages employees rather than by whether they engage in behaviors that are transformational, so by definition, all transformational leaders are effective.
o Transformational leadership is usually described as universal rather than a contingency-oriented model but recent research shows that transformational leadership is more valuable in some situations than in others

65

Transformational Leadership Perspective

- romance of leadership effect followers as it tends to distort their perception of the leader's influence on the environment due to these 2 reasons.

Fundamental attribution error
Need for situational control

66

leaders are given credit or blame for the company's success or failure, Reason

Fundamental attribution error

67

Need for situational control

employees feel better believing that leaders make a difference so they look for this evidence

68

Managerial leadership (Transformational Perspective)

Effective leaders improve employee performance and wellbeing in the current situation, Applies contingency leadership theories (e.g. path-goal).

Changing organisational strategies and culture to fit better with the surrounding environment, Change agents who energise and direct employees to a new vision and corresponding behaviours. Individuals embrace change/

69

(Transformational Perspective)

Romance of leadership effect followers as it tends to distort their perception of the leader's influence on the environment due to these 2 reasons.

Fundamental attribution error
Need for situational control

71

– a theory stating that people evaluate a leader’s effectiveness in terms of how well that person fits preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective leaders (leadership prototypes) and that people tend to inflate the influence of leaders on organisational events.

Implicit Leadership Theory

72

Implicit leadership theory consists of two related concepts:

1. Everyone has leadership prototypes
2. The ‘romance of leadership’ effect





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(Implicit Perspective) The ‘romance of leadership’ effect : Followers tend to _____ their perceptions of the influence that leaders have on the _____. In most cultures, people want to believe that leaders make a difference. (Implicit Perspective)

distort, environment

74

(Implicit Perspective) - Everyone has leadership _____ :

People have preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective leaders. These develop through socialisation within the family and society, and shape our expectations and acceptance of others as leaders, and this affects our willingness to serve as followers.

prototypes

75

Implicit Leadership Perspective

- leader prototype followers evaluate leader effectiveness by how closely the leader's features and behaviors are consistent with prototypes of effective leaders,

-Leaders preconceived beliefs about the characteristics of effective leaders (height, confidence, etc.), Shape the follower's expectations and acceptance of others as leaders,

Reason: inherent need to quickly evaluate individuals as leaders, where actual indicators take much longer


Prototypes

76

There are two main reasons why people inflate their perceptions of their leader’s influence over the environment:

Leadership is a useful way to simplify life events; it is easier to explain organisational successes/failures in terms of the leader’s ability than by analysing a complex array of other forces.
There is a strong tendency in Australia, New Zealand, and other Western cultures, to believe that life events are generated by people rather than uncontrollable natural forces.


77

Cultural Issues in Leadership

- Some leadership styles are universal, others differ across cultures: " ______ visionary" is universally recognised of effective leaders

- Participative leadership is perceived as characteristic of effective leadership in low power distance cultures but less so in high power distance cultures

Charismatic.

78

Cultural Issues in Leadership

- Societal cultural values and practices affect leaders: Shape leader's _____/_____

- also shapes expectations of followers, and Influences decisions and actions

- an executive who acts inconsistently with culturalm expectations is more likely to be perceived as ineffective, Shape follower prototype of effective leaders

values/norms.

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- Women are evaluated negatively when they try to apply the full range of leadership styles e.g. directive and autocratic

- face limitations of leadership through gender stereotypes and prototypes of leaders that are held by followers.

- Women are rated more favorably than men on emerging leadership qualities of coaching and teamwork

Evaluating Female Leaders

80

Leaders motivate others through _____ and other influence tactics.

persuasion

80

_____ Issues in Leadership

-Male and Female leaders have similar task- and peopleoriented leadership

- explanation is that real-world jobs require similar behavior from male and female job incumbents, _____ adopt a participative leadership more readily than _____ leaders

Gender, Women, male

81

A cluster of concepts including visionary qualities, the ability to inspire, performance orientation, integrity and decisiveness

Charismatic visionary

82

Research has generally found that male and female leaders do not differ in their levels of ____-oriented or _____-oriented leadership because real-world jobs require similar behaviours from males and females.

task, people

83

However, females adopt a participative leadership style more readily than males because:

1. Girls are often raised to be more egalitarian and less status-oriented than boys.
2. There is some evidence that females have better interpersonal skills than males.
3. Subordinates, on the basis of their own gender stereotypes, expect female leaders to be more participative