Week 11 - CPS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 11 - CPS Deck (57):
1

Give the name of the fluid in the joints of your foot.

Synovial

2

List 3 symptoms of an inflamed foot. (Hint: these are perceived by the patient.)

1. Pain
2. Warmth
3. Difficulty moving

3

List 3 signs of an inflamed foot. (Hint: these are observed by you.)

1. Redness
2. Swelling
3. Tender to touch

4

Which joint is most likely to be affected in gout?

1st MTP joint (base of the big toe)

5

Name the crystals that may be found in the joint of a gout patient.

Urate crystals

6

What is the main protein in a ligament?

Collagen

7

Which procedure would confirm a joint infection?

Joint aspiration

8

List 3 reasons why cystic fibrosis patients are prone to recurrent chest infections.

1. Thick mucus
2. Reduced mucociliary clearance
3. Inflammation of airways

9

What type of epithelium lines the upper respiratory tract?

Pseudostratified columnar ciliated

10

What is the most common test for detecting cystic fibrosis?

Sweat test

11

What does a sweat test measure?

Salt content

12

What is the inheritance pattern for cystic fibrosis?

Autosomal recessive

13

If two cystic fibrosis carriers have a child, what is the chance that the child will have the condition?

25%

14

What is the medical term for swelling at the ends of the fingers?

Clubbing

15

In cystic fibrosis, which key enzyme may not be secreted into the bowel by the pancreas?

Pancreatic lipase

16

Pancreatic lipase breaks down dietary ___ molecules in the human digestive system.

Fat

17

What class of vitamin do cystic fibrosis patients often fail to absorb in the small bowel?

Fat-soluble

18

List the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.

1. A
2. D
3. E
4. K

19

What is a Colles’ fracture?

Outward fracture of the wrist

20

Where are calcium and phosphate mainly stored in the body?

Bone

21

Which vitamin is required to absorb calcium from the gut?

Vitamin D

22

Which cells are responsible for breaking down matrix and releasing minerals from bone?

Osteoclasts

23

FRAX is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the ___ year probability of a bone fracture risk.

10

24

What is the inheritance pattern of sickle cell disease?

Autosomal recessive

25

Patients with sickle cell trait are relatively resistant to which infectious disease?

Malaria

26

Name the group of signalling proteins that are endogenous pyrogens.

Cytokines

27

What is a pyrogen?

Fever-inducing substance

28

Circadian rhythm is regulated by core body ___.

Temperature

29

Name 3 sites of the body where core temperature may be taken.

1. Rectum
2. Vagina
3. Ear

30

List 4 treatments given to patients in a sickle cell crisis.

1. Oxygen
2. Antibiotics
3. Painkillers
4. Fluids

31

Which hormone stimulates the production of red blood cells?

Erythropoietin

32

What are the 2 types of aura precipitating a migraine?

1. Visual
2. Sensory

33

List 3 types of sensory aura precipitating a migraine.

1. Tingling
2. Numbness
3. Speech impairment

34

List 4 types of visual aura precipitating a migraine.

1. Temporary visual field loss
2. Shimmering
3. Scintillating scotoma
4. Zigzag lines

35

What is a scotoma?

Blind spot

36

If a patient has a subarachnoid hemorrhage, how would they typically describe it?

“Sudden”
“Severe”
“Worst headache of my life”
“Being kicked in the back of the head”
See: thunderclap headache

37

What is a thunderclap headache?

Severe headache that takes seconds to minutes to reach maximum intensity

38

Which blood test should be done on any patient presenting with a headache, and why?

ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) to exclude temporal arteritis

39

What is temporal arteritis?

Inflammation of the temporal arteries (which supply blood to the head and brain)

40

What SIGNS would you expect to find in a patient with a tension headache?

None (SYMPTOMS only!)

41

If a patient has raised intracranial pressure, what is the typical sign you would find upon retinal examination?

Papilledema

42

What is papilledema?

Swelling of the optic nerve due to increased pressure in or around the brain

43

List 3 signs and/or symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea.

1. Snoring
2. Drowsiness
3. Poor concentration

44

List 3 causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

1. Smoking
2. Pollution
3. Occupation (involving inhaling of biomass fuels)

45

What effect does carbon monoxide poisoning have on oxygen level in the blood?

Reduces oxygen level

46

What type of anemia is likely to result from a bleed?

Iron deficiency anemia

47

A patient presents with a long-standing bleed in their stomach. What colour is their stool likely to be?

Black

48

Give 5 signs and/or symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

1. Frequent urination
2. Thirst
3. Weight loss
4. Tiredness
5. Ketone breath

49

What is polyuria?

Frequent urination

50

What is polydipsia?

Excessive thirst

51

List 4 steps in the management of a patient presenting with type 1 diabetes.

1. Urgent admission
2. Fluid replacement
3. Insulin
4. Lower potassium

52

Give 4 signs and/or symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

1. Swelling
2. Pain
3. Redness
4. Morning stiffness

53

A patient presents with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. List 4 signs you would expect to see specifically in her hands.

1. Ulnar deviation
2. Z deformity of the thumb
3. MCP swelling
4. Rheumatoid nodules

54

Are lamella only found in compact bone?

No; they are found in trabecular bone, too, but are irregular rather than concentric

55

List the 4 steps of bone repair.

1. Hematoma formation
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
3. Bony callus formation
4. Bone remodelling

56

What type of cartilage is found on articular surfaces?

Hyaline

57

Of the following types of fractures, which is most common: A) clavicular, B) vertebral, C) pelvic, D) skull?

Clavicular