Flashcards in Week 11 - CPS Deck (57):
Give the name of the fluid in the joints of your foot.
List 3 symptoms of an inflamed foot. (Hint: these are perceived by the patient.)
3. Difficulty moving
List 3 signs of an inflamed foot. (Hint: these are observed by you.)
3. Tender to touch
Which joint is most likely to be affected in gout?
1st MTP joint (base of the big toe)
Name the crystals that may be found in the joint of a gout patient.
What is the main protein in a ligament?
Which procedure would confirm a joint infection?
List 3 reasons why cystic fibrosis patients are prone to recurrent chest infections.
1. Thick mucus
2. Reduced mucociliary clearance
3. Inflammation of airways
What type of epithelium lines the upper respiratory tract?
Pseudostratified columnar ciliated
What is the most common test for detecting cystic fibrosis?
What does a sweat test measure?
What is the inheritance pattern for cystic fibrosis?
If two cystic fibrosis carriers have a child, what is the chance that the child will have the condition?
What is the medical term for swelling at the ends of the fingers?
In cystic fibrosis, which key enzyme may not be secreted into the bowel by the pancreas?
Pancreatic lipase breaks down dietary ___ molecules in the human digestive system.
What class of vitamin do cystic fibrosis patients often fail to absorb in the small bowel?
List the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.
What is a Colles’ fracture?
Outward fracture of the wrist
Where are calcium and phosphate mainly stored in the body?
Which vitamin is required to absorb calcium from the gut?
Which cells are responsible for breaking down matrix and releasing minerals from bone?
FRAX is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the ___ year probability of a bone fracture risk.
What is the inheritance pattern of sickle cell disease?
Patients with sickle cell trait are relatively resistant to which infectious disease?
Name the group of signalling proteins that are endogenous pyrogens.
What is a pyrogen?
Circadian rhythm is regulated by core body ___.
Name 3 sites of the body where core temperature may be taken.
List 4 treatments given to patients in a sickle cell crisis.
Which hormone stimulates the production of red blood cells?
What are the 2 types of aura precipitating a migraine?
List 3 types of sensory aura precipitating a migraine.
3. Speech impairment
List 4 types of visual aura precipitating a migraine.
1. Temporary visual field loss
3. Scintillating scotoma
4. Zigzag lines
What is a scotoma?
If a patient has a subarachnoid hemorrhage, how would they typically describe it?
“Worst headache of my life”
“Being kicked in the back of the head”
See: thunderclap headache
What is a thunderclap headache?
Severe headache that takes seconds to minutes to reach maximum intensity
Which blood test should be done on any patient presenting with a headache, and why?
ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) to exclude temporal arteritis
What is temporal arteritis?
Inflammation of the temporal arteries (which supply blood to the head and brain)
What SIGNS would you expect to find in a patient with a tension headache?
None (SYMPTOMS only!)
If a patient has raised intracranial pressure, what is the typical sign you would find upon retinal examination?
What is papilledema?
Swelling of the optic nerve due to increased pressure in or around the brain
List 3 signs and/or symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea.
3. Poor concentration
List 3 causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
3. Occupation (involving inhaling of biomass fuels)
What effect does carbon monoxide poisoning have on oxygen level in the blood?
Reduces oxygen level
What type of anemia is likely to result from a bleed?
Iron deficiency anemia
A patient presents with a long-standing bleed in their stomach. What colour is their stool likely to be?
Give 5 signs and/or symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
1. Frequent urination
3. Weight loss
5. Ketone breath
What is polyuria?
What is polydipsia?
List 4 steps in the management of a patient presenting with type 1 diabetes.
1. Urgent admission
2. Fluid replacement
4. Lower potassium
Give 4 signs and/or symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
4. Morning stiffness
A patient presents with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. List 4 signs you would expect to see specifically in her hands.
1. Ulnar deviation
2. Z deformity of the thumb
3. MCP swelling
4. Rheumatoid nodules
Are lamella only found in compact bone?
No; they are found in trabecular bone, too, but are irregular rather than concentric
List the 4 steps of bone repair.
1. Hematoma formation
2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
3. Bony callus formation
4. Bone remodelling
What type of cartilage is found on articular surfaces?