Week 11: Sleeping and Consciousness Flashcards Preview

CogBog Sem 1 End of Semester Exam > Week 11: Sleeping and Consciousness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 11: Sleeping and Consciousness Deck (52):
1

The 3 components of attention are:
1. Orienting to sensory stimuli
2. Controlling behaviour and the cntents of consciousness
and...

Maintaining alertness

2

What parts of the brain are involved in sleep and waking?

Pons, reticular formation, medulla oblongata

3

The 'spotlight of attention' areas of the brain are...

The prefrontal cortex and the thalamus

4

the first view of consciousness is the...
Discuss it

Psychodynamic view
-Freud - 3 levels of consciousness
Conscious - mental events of which you are aware
Preconscious - mental events that can be brought into consciousness
Unconscious - mental events we are unaware of

5

Perception below the threshold of consciousness is called...

subliminal perception

6

Subliminal perception can influence our...

behaviours and reactions (eg. subliminal advertising)

7

Or motivational systems can be...

Conscious (explicit) or unconscious (implicit)

8

The 2nd view of consciousness is the...
Explain it

The Cognitive view
- Information processing operating outside of our consciousness
- consciousness and working memory are used interchangeably

9

If someone is blindsighted, they have damage to...

The central part if the occipital cortex (tectum/other parts of thalamus)

10

What is happening when someone is blindsighted?

They are unable to see objects placed before them, but they can provide info about the shape of an object
- Die to a primitive visual system in the brain

11

Hindbrain and midbrain are important for...

arousal and sleep

12

Damage to the reticular formation can lead to...

coma

13

The key area for conscious control of information processing is...

The prefrontal cortex

14

What does the reticular formation do for us when we sleep?

It turns our attention to stimulus off.

15

The human body operates on what time loop/cycle?

25 hours

16

What frequency of beta-waves operate when we are awake?

15-20hz/second

17

What frequency of beta-waves operate when we are in stage 4 of deep sleep?

1-2hz/second

18

As we age, the amount of sleep we need...

decreases

19

What is the psychodynamic view on dreaming?

Dreams reveal our unconscious.
Latent content (meaning) is revealed through manifest content (the dream)

20

What is the cognitive view on dreaming?

Dreams are a way of washing out the daily issues of the dreamer

21

What is the biological view on dreaming?

Dreams are in response to the random firing of neurons in the brain during sleep.
OR
The consolidation of new material

22

What are some of the symptoms of insomnia?

tense, depressed, higher body temp, higher metablic rate

23

What does the reticular formation allow in when we sleep?

Meaningful sounds (different to each individual) eg. crying baby

24

Attending to 2 tasks at the same time is employing...

divided attention

25

What are the 3 cycles of everyday consciousness?

Awake and Alert
• Daydreaming
• Sleep and dreaming

26

In Theories of Dreaming, Freud viewed dreams as

wish fulfilment (satisfies unconscious needs)

27

In Theories of Dreaming, Cartwright viewed dreams as

problem solving (we deal with major problems in our lives)

28

In Theories of Dreaming, Hobson and McCarly viewed dreams as

Activation synthesis (a story is created to make sense of internal signals)

29

What are some altered states of consciousness?

- hypnosis
-meditation
-hallucination

30

What is hypnotic analgesia?

gating pain

31

The auditory cortex is activated to hear voices in patients with...

schizophrenia

32

Returning to a hypnotized state when you hear a certain word is called...

posthypnotic suggestion

33

Hypnosis does not increase ______, but it does increase __________.

accuracy of memory
confidence

34

What are the 2 main functions of consciousness?

1. monitoring the self
2. Controlling throught and behaviour

35

At what stage of sleep do dreams occur?

REM

36

What are 2 things that occur during meditation between 20-40 mins?

1. decreased oxygen consumption
2. decreased carbon dioxide elimination

37

The alertness component of consciousness is regulated by...

the reticular formation

38

Different patterns of subjective experience are called...

states of consciousness

39

Monitoring the self and regulating thought and behaviour are...

2 functions of consciousness

40

Information processing mechanisms that operate outside of our awareness are called...

cognitive unconscious functions

41

One of the strengths of the cognitive unconscious is...

the ability to operate simultaneously

42

Where can consciousness be 'found'

reticular activating system, cortex and thalamus

43

human circadian rhythms are controlled by...

the hypothlamus

44

PET scans show that conscious attention is initiated by the...

reticular formation

45

Reflexive actions are not part of which view on cognition?

psychodynamic (Freud)

46

The cognitive unconscious is equal to Freud's notion of...

dynamic unconscious

47

During NREM sleep, I am doing what?

forming and consolidating memories

48

Cultual beliefs and expectations can be modified by...

cultural beliefs and expectations

49

Dreaming about falling off a cliff around exam time was explained by which 2 theorists?

Freud and Foulkes

50

I am erasing memories during which phase of sleep?

REM

51

Lesions to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe =

Unable to see an object placed before you
Can provide partial info about shape
Has an implicit ability to locate the object

52

The gender most likely to dream about someone carrying a weapon is...

male