Flashcards in Week 11: Sleeping and Consciousness Deck (52):
The 3 components of attention are:
1. Orienting to sensory stimuli
2. Controlling behaviour and the cntents of consciousness
What parts of the brain are involved in sleep and waking?
Pons, reticular formation, medulla oblongata
The 'spotlight of attention' areas of the brain are...
The prefrontal cortex and the thalamus
the first view of consciousness is the...
-Freud - 3 levels of consciousness
Conscious - mental events of which you are aware
Preconscious - mental events that can be brought into consciousness
Unconscious - mental events we are unaware of
Perception below the threshold of consciousness is called...
Subliminal perception can influence our...
behaviours and reactions (eg. subliminal advertising)
Or motivational systems can be...
Conscious (explicit) or unconscious (implicit)
The 2nd view of consciousness is the...
The Cognitive view
- Information processing operating outside of our consciousness
- consciousness and working memory are used interchangeably
If someone is blindsighted, they have damage to...
The central part if the occipital cortex (tectum/other parts of thalamus)
What is happening when someone is blindsighted?
They are unable to see objects placed before them, but they can provide info about the shape of an object
- Die to a primitive visual system in the brain
Hindbrain and midbrain are important for...
arousal and sleep
Damage to the reticular formation can lead to...
The key area for conscious control of information processing is...
The prefrontal cortex
What does the reticular formation do for us when we sleep?
It turns our attention to stimulus off.
The human body operates on what time loop/cycle?
What frequency of beta-waves operate when we are awake?
What frequency of beta-waves operate when we are in stage 4 of deep sleep?
As we age, the amount of sleep we need...
What is the psychodynamic view on dreaming?
Dreams reveal our unconscious.
Latent content (meaning) is revealed through manifest content (the dream)
What is the cognitive view on dreaming?
Dreams are a way of washing out the daily issues of the dreamer
What is the biological view on dreaming?
Dreams are in response to the random firing of neurons in the brain during sleep.
The consolidation of new material
What are some of the symptoms of insomnia?
tense, depressed, higher body temp, higher metablic rate
What does the reticular formation allow in when we sleep?
Meaningful sounds (different to each individual) eg. crying baby
Attending to 2 tasks at the same time is employing...
What are the 3 cycles of everyday consciousness?
Awake and Alert
• Sleep and dreaming
In Theories of Dreaming, Freud viewed dreams as
wish fulfilment (satisfies unconscious needs)
In Theories of Dreaming, Cartwright viewed dreams as
problem solving (we deal with major problems in our lives)
In Theories of Dreaming, Hobson and McCarly viewed dreams as
Activation synthesis (a story is created to make sense of internal signals)
What are some altered states of consciousness?
What is hypnotic analgesia?
The auditory cortex is activated to hear voices in patients with...
Returning to a hypnotized state when you hear a certain word is called...
Hypnosis does not increase ______, but it does increase __________.
accuracy of memory
What are the 2 main functions of consciousness?
1. monitoring the self
2. Controlling throught and behaviour
At what stage of sleep do dreams occur?
What are 2 things that occur during meditation between 20-40 mins?
1. decreased oxygen consumption
2. decreased carbon dioxide elimination
The alertness component of consciousness is regulated by...
the reticular formation
Different patterns of subjective experience are called...
states of consciousness
Monitoring the self and regulating thought and behaviour are...
2 functions of consciousness
Information processing mechanisms that operate outside of our awareness are called...
cognitive unconscious functions
One of the strengths of the cognitive unconscious is...
the ability to operate simultaneously
Where can consciousness be 'found'
reticular activating system, cortex and thalamus
human circadian rhythms are controlled by...
PET scans show that conscious attention is initiated by the...
Reflexive actions are not part of which view on cognition?
The cognitive unconscious is equal to Freud's notion of...
During NREM sleep, I am doing what?
forming and consolidating memories
Cultual beliefs and expectations can be modified by...
cultural beliefs and expectations
Dreaming about falling off a cliff around exam time was explained by which 2 theorists?
Freud and Foulkes
I am erasing memories during which phase of sleep?
Lesions to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe =
Unable to see an object placed before you
Can provide partial info about shape
Has an implicit ability to locate the object