What are th different types of lung cancer?
Non-small cell, further subdivided into:
- Squamous cell carcinoma
- Large cell carcinoma
- Large cell neuroendocrine
What is the most common type of lung cancer?
Squamous cell carcinoma - 35% of cases
What are the features of a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?
- Arises from the epithelium and associated with keratin production
- Occasionally cavitates with central necrosis
- Causes obstructing lesions of the bronchus, with post-obstructive infection
- Local spread common, metastases relatively late
What are the features of adenocarcinoma of the lung?
- Increasing incidence over last 10 years - low tar cigs?
- Originate from mucus-secreting glandular cells
- Most common type in non-smokers
- Peripheral lesions on CXR
- Subtypes include bronchoalverolar cell carcinoma
- Mets are common in the pleura, lymph nodes, brain, bone, and adrenal glands
What are the features of large cell carcinomas of the lung?
- Usually poorly differentiated
- Metastasise relatively early in the disease
What are the features of neuroendocrine tumours of the lung?
- Arise from the neuroendocrine cells (APUD cells)
- Often secrete polypeptide hormones
- Often arise centrally and metastasise early on
What are some of the symptoms assoicated with lung cancer?
- Chest pain
- Wheeze and hoarse voice
- Nerve compression
- Recurrent infections
What type of lung cancer is associated with infiltrating the apex of the lung and causing nerve palsies (Horner's syndrome) ?
What investigations can be performed for a suspected lung cancer?
Up to what stage is surgery usually performed for lung cancers?
Up to stage 3a tumours
What are some lung side effects of radiation therapy?
Radiation pneumonitis - occurs within 3 months of radiotherapy
What primary tumours usually metastasise to the lung and how are they usually seen on a CXR?
Appear as round shadows in the lungs
Describe the features of a pulmonary hamartoma
- Most common benign lung tumour
- Well defined resion 1-2cm in the periphery of the lung
- Growth is extremly slow
- Rarely arises from the bronchus
Describe the features of a bronchial carcinoid