Week 145 - Haemoptysis 1 - Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 145 - Haemoptysis 1 - Lung Cancer Deck (15):

What are th different types of lung cancer?

Small cell

Non-small cell, further subdivided into:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma
  • Large cell neuroendocrine



What is the most common type of lung cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma - 35% of cases


What are the features of a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung?

  • Arises from the epithelium and associated with keratin production
  • Occasionally cavitates with central necrosis
  • Causes obstructing lesions of the bronchus, with post-obstructive infection
  • Local spread common, metastases relatively late


What are the features of adenocarcinoma of the lung?

  • Increasing incidence over last 10 years - low tar cigs?
  • Originate from mucus-secreting glandular cells
  • Most common type in non-smokers
  • Peripheral lesions on CXR
  • Subtypes include bronchoalverolar cell carcinoma
  • Mets are common in the pleura, lymph nodes, brain, bone, and adrenal glands


What are the features of large cell carcinomas of the lung?

  • Usually poorly differentiated
  • Metastasise relatively early in the disease


What are the features of neuroendocrine tumours of the lung?

  • Arise from the neuroendocrine cells (APUD cells)
  • Often secrete polypeptide hormones
  • Often arise centrally and metastasise early on


What are some of the symptoms assoicated with lung cancer?

  • Cough
  • Breathlessness
  • Haemoptysis
  • Chest pain
  • Wheeze and hoarse voice
  • Nerve compression
  • Recurrent infections


What type of lung cancer is associated with infiltrating the apex of the lung and causing nerve palsies (Horner's syndrome) ?

Pancoast tumours


What investigations can be performed for a suspected lung cancer?




Fibreoptic bronchoscopy


Endobronchial USS



Up to what stage is surgery usually performed for lung cancers?

Up to stage 3a tumours


What are some lung side effects of radiation therapy?

Radiation pneumonitis - occurs within 3 months of radiotherapy

Radiation fibrosis 


What primary tumours usually metastasise to the lung and how are they usually seen on a CXR?

Appear as round shadows in the lungs

Occur in:

  • Kidney
  • Prostate
  • Breast 
  • Bone
  • Cervix
  • Ovary
  • Thyroid


Describe the features of a pulmonary hamartoma

  • Most common benign lung tumour
  • Well defined resion 1-2cm in the periphery of the lung
  • Growth is extremly slow
  • Rarely arises from the bronchus


Describe the features of a bronchial carcinoid

  • Locally invasive and can spread to lymph nodes and beyond
  • Highly vascular and can produce haemopytsis
  • Grows slow and eventually blocks the bronchus
  • Produces ACTH