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Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (18):
1

 What is the difference between Europe and America on the NvN debate in the

Europeans = nurture 

North America = NAture

2

 Problems with a physical/mental division (Sack’s and Chimp examples)

Chimps show self awareness

 

A man who fell out of his bed was admitted to the hospital
He thought his leg had been replaced by a corpse leg
HIs actual body image was distorted due to the asomatognosia

3

 The essence of the NvN debate

The physical body and human mind are the same
Are these things separate or in parallel
*in bio pysch these things happen in parallel**
**Does human condition transcend physiology**
is behavior inherited or learned(to what degree can we parse to the two)

4

 Behavior as an interaction between 3 factors

1.) genetics
2.) Experience
our experience can influence which genes are expressed
does not influence what genes we are born with
but influences which ones are active
3.) subjective perception of the current situation
the matter in which we react to something

5

 Lamark’s Theory

Lamarck observed animals change over time
offspring inherit there progenitors changes physical and presumable otherwise even
*EVEN WRONG IDEAS STIMULATE DISCOURSE*

6

\ Darwinian evolution (know the different terms)

1. Fossil record
2.) Structural similarities between living species
3.) major changes in domestic plants and animals via breeding
  observed durastic changes in a closed ecology based on what it took to survive

7

 Mating Behaviors

Polygyny-1 male multiple females
Polyandry-1 female multiple males
Monogamy-1 male with 1 female

8

 Structural vs. operator genes,

Operator Genes are like switches
-these genes are largely influenced by input from the organisms environment
  possibly social or emotional factors
  **NURTURE AGAIN**

9

 Maze-bright vs. Maze-dull rat experiment

ex. Breeding of maze bright vs. maze dull rats
  Tyrion(1934) rats can be selectively bred to be maze bright or maze dull

So there is a genetic portion to being maze dull or maze bright

10

 Phenylketonuria

special diet that avoid phenyl alanine can inhibit psychological impairment
   diet (environment) influences ones developmental trajectory

11

 Birdsong

male birds must hear their species songs during a critical period or they     develop abnormal songs (there is a genetic window where animals are     more likely to be able to learn songs)

   birds are also left side dominant (brocchies area and such)
   birds and humans can grow new neurons in the hippocampus (where we     can observe nuerotogensis in humans.
   we share things with animals deep seated brain structures

12

What is asomatognosia

damage to the right parietal lobe (exam question)

13

PROBLEMS WITH CARTESIAN DUALISM

changes in the brain cause behavior and psychological changes
Some non-human species esp. primates possess abilities that were previously attributed  to humans alone.

14

Natural Selection

 the animals that survive to pass on their offspring are going to do so
there are characteristics of the environment and organism that allow it to do so
these organism are promoted in nature due to their ability to survive

15

Fitness

The degree to which an animal is best suited to its environment
ex.  physical characteristics (long necks) behavioral (reciprocal altruism)

16

SPANDREL

literally translates into left over.

17

Neural Evolution

 1.) size is nonadaptive by products
  larger brains does not mean smarter
2.) MUSHROOM CAP
  new parts of the brain are on top of older parts
  it is useful to study rats and such because we have a lot in common with the    evolutionarily older parts of the brain
3.) convolutions
  Gyrus-outfolding of tissue
  sulcus-infolding of tissue
**THESE CONVOLUTIONS INCREASE THE OVERALL SURFACE AREA OF THE BRAIN**

18

Twin Studies

 ex.  Identical twins are more similar to each other than fraternal twins on all    psychological dimensionsh

 its been observed that fraternal twins who are not raised in the same     environment show a moderate correlation in IQ (genetic component to     intelligence

   Identical twins show a strong correlation between IQs (indicates strong     genetic contribution to IQ if nurture there would be a perfect correlation)

   In identical twins those raised in an affluent  environment showed a     strong correlation (the degree to which ones environment is enriched     demonstrates the relationship between nature and nurture)