Week 2 Flashcards Preview

JL Neurology > Week 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (78):
1

What does the embryonic division telencephalon mature to?

Cerebral hemispheres

2

What does the embryonic division diencephalon mature to?

Thalamus, hypothalamus

3

What does the embryonic division mesencephalon mature to?

Midbrain

4

What does the embryonic division Metencephalon mature to?

Pons, cerebellum

5

What does the embryonic division myelencephalon mature to?

Medulla oblongata

6

What cells are more numerous in the CNS than neurons?

Glial cells

7

What type of glial cell has roles in support, maintaining blood brain barrier, environmental homeostasis?

Astrocytes (star shaped)

8

What cells produce myelin in the CNS?

Oligodendrocytes

9

What type of glial cell are of similar lineage to macrophages and are involved in immune monitoring and antigen presentation?

Microglia

10

What type of glial cells are ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelium that line the ventricles?

Ependymal cells

11

In the cerebellum, what is equivalent to a gyrus in the cerebral hemispheres?

Folium

12

In the brain is the grey matter on the inside or outside?

Outside

13

What type of matter has huge numbers of neurons, cell processes, synapses and support cells?

Grey matter

14

What type of matter has axons (most myelinated and their support cells)?

White matter

15

In the spinal cord is the grey matter on the inside or outside?

Inside

16

What matter in the spinal cord has horns?

Gray matter

17

What love is anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus?

Frontal lobe

18

What lobe is posterior to the central sulcus, superior to the lateral sulcus and anterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipitial notch?

Parietal lobe

19

What lobe is inferior to the lateral sulcus and posteriorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch?

Temporal lobe

20

Where is the hidden lobe found and what does it do?

Underneath layers of brain
Role to play in patients experience of pain

21

What other nervous system (CNS, PNS) must we not forget?

Enteric nervous system - from oesophagus to rectum

22

Where do the dural venous sinuses drain to?

Into internal jugular vein

23

At what sections are the two enlargmenets of the spinal cord?

cERVICAL AND LUMBAR

24

Once the spinal cord terminates in the conus medullaris, what does it continue as?

Filum terminale - anchored to dorsum of coccyx

25

What is the spinal cord suspended in teh canal by?

Ribbon of tissue on lateral aspects called denticulate ligament

26

Where does the small central canal extending the lenmgth of the spnal cord open up into?

The 4th ventricle

27

What do the posterior, lateral and anterior fasciculi make up?

White matter in spinal cord

28

What three major longitudinal arteries supply the spinal cord?

One anterior and two posterior that originate from vertebral arteries

29

The segmental arteries that supply spinal cord are derived from what?

Vertebral arteries
Intercostal arteries
Lumbar arteries

30

What arteries travel along the dorsal and ventral roots?

Radicular arteries

31

What side of the cortex is the left side of the body represented on?

Right

32

What column/system controls fine touch and conscious proprioception?

Dorsal column medial lemniscus system

33

What column/system carries pain, temperature and deep pressure?

Spinothalamic tract

34

What descending column/tract controls fine, precise movement particularly of distal limb muscles?

Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)

35

What can a CVA of the internal capsule result in?

A lack of descending control of the corticospinal tract

36

What tract has input mostly to cervical segments and is thought to mediate reflex head and neck movement due to visual stimuloi?

Tectospinal tract

37

What forms the central core of the brainstem?

Rericular formation

38

In relation to the reticulospinal tract what do fibres originating in the pons facilitate?

Extensor movements and inhibit flexor movements.
Those originating in the medulla do the opoosite.

39

What tract has excitatory input to antigravity exgtensor muscles?

Vestibulosponal tract

40

What tract is thought to play an important role in patients exhibiting decerebrate rigidity and paraplegia in extension?

Vestibulospinal tract

41

What syndrome results from lateral hemisectio n of the cord?

Brown sequard syndrome

42

What part of brainstem does CN V come from?

Pons

43

What is the name of the stripe going straight down cerebellum?

Vermis

44

What three layers make up cerebellar cortex?`

Outer - molecular layer
Middle - purkinje cells
Inner - granular layer

45

From all three lobes of the cerebellum, the only output is via what?

Axons of purkinje cells which mainly synapse on neurons of deep cerebellar nuclei

46

What side of the body do cerebellar hemispheres influence?

Ipsilateral

47

What does bilateral cerebellar dysfunction reslut in?

sLOWED, slurred speech, bilateral incoordination of arms and staggering, wide based gait.

48

What exposure typically results in bilateral cerebellar hemispheere dysfunctin and presents with cerebellar ataxia?

Acute alcohol exposure

49

What would a midline lesion in the cerebellum cause?

Disturbance of posural control

50

What are the three functions of the basal ganglia?

1. Facilitate purposeful movement
2. Inhibit unwanted movements
3. Role in posture and muscle tone

51

What is the term for a number of masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere?

Basal ganglia

52

The lenticualr nucleus is part of the basal ganglia - what makes it up?

Putamen (more medial) and globus pallidus

53

The corpus striatum is part of the basal ganglia - what makes it up?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus

54

What else makes up the basal ganglia other than caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus?

Subthalamic nucleus
Substantia nigr

55

What side of the body do unilateral lesions of the basal ganglia affect?

Contralateral side of body

56

Lesions of what in the brain cause the following motor signs - changes in muscle tone, dyskinesias, tremor, chorea and myoclonus

Basal ganglion dysfunction

57

Akinesia, rigidity and resting tremor?

Parkinsons disease

58

Autosomal dominant disorder, progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, chorea and progressive demenita?

Huntingtons dsiease

59

All cranial nerves exit anteriorly except?

CN IV

60

What is the only sensory modality that does not spase in the thalamus before reaching the cortex?

Olfactory nerve

61

What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with proprioception info from chewing muscles?

Mesencphalic nuclesu

62

What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with discrimitaive touch and vibration?

Pontine trigmenial nuclues

63

What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with pain and temp?

Spinal nucleus

64

What CN IX nucleues deals with stylopharyngesu mucles?

Nucleus ambiguus

65

What nyucleus deals with tase?

Solitary nucleus

66

What tract is the part of the pyramidal tract that is motor to cranial nerves?

Corticobulbar tact

67

What two nuclei are important in sound localisation?

Superior olivary nucleus
Nucleus of lateral lemniscus

68

In what part of the auditory cortex do low frequency sound fibres end?

In anterolateral part

69

In what part of the auditory cortex do high frequency sound fibres end?

Posteromedial part

70

What is aphasia?

Inability to use language

71

What area in the brain is damaged if patients have difficulty in producing language, often using few words and only say most important one?

Brocos area - broca's motor or expressive aphasia

72

What area of teh brain is damaged when patients have difficulty comprehending language (words out of order to meaningloss words)?

Wernickes area - wernickes sensory or receptive aphasia

73

What CN is related to superior colloculus?

Oculomotor

74

What side of the gyrus (superior or inferior) is the lower visual field projected to?

Superior to calcarine sulcus

75

Where does the macula project to of the visual cortex?

Posterior pole

76

In relation to the pupillary light reflex - how do the pretectal fibres project to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?

Bilaterally

77

What three CNs share the solitary nucleus?

CN VII, IX and X

78

What two CNs share nucleus ambiguus?

CN IX AND X