Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (78):
What does the embryonic division telencephalon mature to?
What does the embryonic division diencephalon mature to?
What does the embryonic division mesencephalon mature to?
What does the embryonic division Metencephalon mature to?
What does the embryonic division myelencephalon mature to?
What cells are more numerous in the CNS than neurons?
What type of glial cell has roles in support, maintaining blood brain barrier, environmental homeostasis?
Astrocytes (star shaped)
What cells produce myelin in the CNS?
What type of glial cell are of similar lineage to macrophages and are involved in immune monitoring and antigen presentation?
What type of glial cells are ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelium that line the ventricles?
In the cerebellum, what is equivalent to a gyrus in the cerebral hemispheres?
In the brain is the grey matter on the inside or outside?
What type of matter has huge numbers of neurons, cell processes, synapses and support cells?
What type of matter has axons (most myelinated and their support cells)?
In the spinal cord is the grey matter on the inside or outside?
What matter in the spinal cord has horns?
What love is anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus?
What lobe is posterior to the central sulcus, superior to the lateral sulcus and anterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipitial notch?
What lobe is inferior to the lateral sulcus and posteriorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch?
Where is the hidden lobe found and what does it do?
Underneath layers of brain
Role to play in patients experience of pain
What other nervous system (CNS, PNS) must we not forget?
Enteric nervous system - from oesophagus to rectum
Where do the dural venous sinuses drain to?
Into internal jugular vein
At what sections are the two enlargmenets of the spinal cord?
cERVICAL AND LUMBAR
Once the spinal cord terminates in the conus medullaris, what does it continue as?
Filum terminale - anchored to dorsum of coccyx
What is the spinal cord suspended in teh canal by?
Ribbon of tissue on lateral aspects called denticulate ligament
Where does the small central canal extending the lenmgth of the spnal cord open up into?
The 4th ventricle
What do the posterior, lateral and anterior fasciculi make up?
White matter in spinal cord
What three major longitudinal arteries supply the spinal cord?
One anterior and two posterior that originate from vertebral arteries
The segmental arteries that supply spinal cord are derived from what?
What arteries travel along the dorsal and ventral roots?
What side of the cortex is the left side of the body represented on?
What column/system controls fine touch and conscious proprioception?
Dorsal column medial lemniscus system
What column/system carries pain, temperature and deep pressure?
What descending column/tract controls fine, precise movement particularly of distal limb muscles?
Corticospinal tract (pyramidal tract)
What can a CVA of the internal capsule result in?
A lack of descending control of the corticospinal tract
What tract has input mostly to cervical segments and is thought to mediate reflex head and neck movement due to visual stimuloi?
What forms the central core of the brainstem?
In relation to the reticulospinal tract what do fibres originating in the pons facilitate?
Extensor movements and inhibit flexor movements.
Those originating in the medulla do the opoosite.
What tract has excitatory input to antigravity exgtensor muscles?
What tract is thought to play an important role in patients exhibiting decerebrate rigidity and paraplegia in extension?
What syndrome results from lateral hemisectio n of the cord?
Brown sequard syndrome
What part of brainstem does CN V come from?
What is the name of the stripe going straight down cerebellum?
What three layers make up cerebellar cortex?`
Outer - molecular layer
Middle - purkinje cells
Inner - granular layer
From all three lobes of the cerebellum, the only output is via what?
Axons of purkinje cells which mainly synapse on neurons of deep cerebellar nuclei
What side of the body do cerebellar hemispheres influence?
What does bilateral cerebellar dysfunction reslut in?
sLOWED, slurred speech, bilateral incoordination of arms and staggering, wide based gait.
What exposure typically results in bilateral cerebellar hemispheere dysfunctin and presents with cerebellar ataxia?
Acute alcohol exposure
What would a midline lesion in the cerebellum cause?
Disturbance of posural control
What are the three functions of the basal ganglia?
1. Facilitate purposeful movement
2. Inhibit unwanted movements
3. Role in posture and muscle tone
What is the term for a number of masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere?
The lenticualr nucleus is part of the basal ganglia - what makes it up?
Putamen (more medial) and globus pallidus
The corpus striatum is part of the basal ganglia - what makes it up?
What else makes up the basal ganglia other than caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus?
What side of the body do unilateral lesions of the basal ganglia affect?
Contralateral side of body
Lesions of what in the brain cause the following motor signs - changes in muscle tone, dyskinesias, tremor, chorea and myoclonus
Basal ganglion dysfunction
Akinesia, rigidity and resting tremor?
Autosomal dominant disorder, progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, chorea and progressive demenita?
All cranial nerves exit anteriorly except?
What is the only sensory modality that does not spase in the thalamus before reaching the cortex?
What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with proprioception info from chewing muscles?
What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with discrimitaive touch and vibration?
Pontine trigmenial nuclues
What trigeminal sensory nuclei deals with pain and temp?
What CN IX nucleues deals with stylopharyngesu mucles?
What nyucleus deals with tase?
What tract is the part of the pyramidal tract that is motor to cranial nerves?
What two nuclei are important in sound localisation?
Superior olivary nucleus
Nucleus of lateral lemniscus
In what part of the auditory cortex do low frequency sound fibres end?
In anterolateral part
In what part of the auditory cortex do high frequency sound fibres end?
What is aphasia?
Inability to use language
What area in the brain is damaged if patients have difficulty in producing language, often using few words and only say most important one?
Brocos area - broca's motor or expressive aphasia
What area of teh brain is damaged when patients have difficulty comprehending language (words out of order to meaningloss words)?
Wernickes area - wernickes sensory or receptive aphasia
What CN is related to superior colloculus?
What side of the gyrus (superior or inferior) is the lower visual field projected to?
Superior to calcarine sulcus
Where does the macula project to of the visual cortex?
In relation to the pupillary light reflex - how do the pretectal fibres project to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus?
What three CNs share the solitary nucleus?
CN VII, IX and X