Week 2 Flashcards Preview

PT fundamentals > Week 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (129)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is gait?

The manner in which a person walks

2

What is a step?

From the heel strike of one foot to the next heel strike of the contralateral (opposite) foot

3

What is step length?

The distance between steps

4

What is a stride?

From the heel strike of one foot to the next heel strike of the ipsilateral (same) heel strike. (lasts 1 sec)

5

What is speed?

The rate of linear forward motion of the body

6

What is cadence?

The number of steps taken per unit of time. Steps/min

7

What is the general cadence for adult men

110 steps/min

8

What is the general cadence for adult women

116 steps/min

9

What is the general cadence for start of jogging/running

180 steps/min

10

How do you increase gait speed?

By increasing stride length, & cadence

11

What is a step width?

The linear distance between midpoint of heel of one foot and the same point on the other foot completing the step.

12

What is the general step width?

Usually 3 and half inches, but can vary from 1-5 inches

13

The step width is ____ in elderly and infants

Wider/larger

14

What are the phases of the gait cycle?

Initial contact, loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance, pre-swing, initial swing, mid-swing, and terminal swing

15

What percent is the stance phase of the total gait cycle?

62%

16

What percent is the swing phase of the total gait cycle?

38-50%

17

What is initial contact in the phases of gait?

The moment when the foot contacts the ground

18

What is loading response in the phases of gait?

Weight rapidly transferred onto outstretched limb

19

What is mid stance in the phases of gait?

Body progresses over a single, stable limb

20

What is terminal stance in the phases of gait?

Body moves ahead of limb and weight is transferred to forefoot. Rapid unloading of limb occurs as weight is transferred to contralateral(opposite) limb

21

What is pre-swing in the phases of gait?

Thigh begins to advance as foot comes off the floor

22

What is initial swing in the phases of gait?

Thigh begins to advance as foot comes off the floor

23

What is mid swing in the phases of gait?

Thigh continues to advance as the knee begins to extend

24

What is terminal swing in the phases of gait?

Knee extends as the limb prepares for the contact with the ground.

25

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through initial contact and loading response?

Pre-swing

26

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through mid-stance?

Initial swing and 1st part of mid swing

27

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through terminal stance?

2nd part of mid swing and terminal swing

28

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through pre- swing?

Initial contact and loading response

29

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through initial swing and 1st part of mid-swing?

Mid-stance

30

What is happening in the other limb when the reference limb is going through 2nd part of mid-swing and terminal swing?

Terminal stance

31

Loading response(2nd phase) begins with ____ and ends with __

Begins with foot contact and ends with opposite limb toe off

32

Mid stance(3rd phase) begins with ___ and ends with ___

Begins with opposite limb toe off and ends with ipsilateral heel rise

33

Terminal stance(4th phase) begins with ___ and ends with ____

Begins with ipsilateral heel rise and ends with opposite limb foot contact

34

Pre swing starts(5th phase) with __ and ends with ___

Starts with opposite foot contact and ends with ipsilateral toe off

35

Initial swing (6th phase) starts with ___ and ends with ____

Starts with ipsilateral toe off and ends when the medial malleoli are aligned

36

Mid swing (7th phase) begins with ___ and ends with ____

Begins with the medial malleoli aligned and ends when the ipsilateral tibia is perpendicular to the ground

37

Terminal swing (8th phase) begins with ___ and ends with ___

Begins with the tibia perpendicular to the floor and ends when the ipsilateral foot strikes the floor

38

Where should the PT be positioned during gait training?

Behind the patient and to the side that is being treated. Place one hand with a supinated grip and the other hand in front of the shoulder

39

What assistive devices should be used with 3-point gait?

Crutches or walker

40

Assisted devices to use for a patient that has one leg affected and full weight bearing on the other leg is ___

Crutches or a front wheeled walker

41

For a patient with no weight bearing restrictions, ____ can be used

Bilateral canes

42

Where in the 5 elements of patient management does the subjective exam fall?

Examination and evaluation

43

What is the primary objective of the initial PT visit called?

Phase 1 differential diagnosis

44

What question is asked in the Phase 1 differential diagnosis?

Does this patient belong in my clinic?

45

Will the subjective exam ever need to come back in play?

Yes

46

What is the typical subjective exam flow?

1. Review Baseline Information/Chart Review
2. Establish Rapport
3. Gather General Information
4.Analyze Information/ Hypothesis Generation
5. Gather Specific Information
6. Plan Objective Exam

47

80% of info needed to make a diagnosis is contained in the ___

Subjective exam

48

What happens in the Review Baseline Information/Chart Review of the subjective exam flow?

• Provides needed information, like:
- General Health Status
- Imaging findings
- Operative reports
- Past medical history and/or treatments
- Medications

49

What part of the subjective flow may be the examination?

Review Baseline Information/Chart Review

50

What happens in the Establish Rapport of the subjective exam flow?

• Welcoming introductions
• Establish effective communication and
rapport
• Explanation of perspective
• Clarification of patient expectations
• Sequence of first session – exam process and patients role

51

What happens in the gather general information step of the subjective exam flow?

• Patient profile (age, gender...)
• Chief complaint
• Body chart
• Present Episode
• Past History
• Aggravating/Easing Factors
• Relationship between regions
• 24-hour behavior
• Patient Goals
• Patient Expectations

52

The ___ fills out the body chart

The patient

53

Problem area characteristics of of the body chart

• Location of each area of pain / symptoms
• Quality / Type of symptoms
• Depth of symptoms
• Frequency / Constancy of symptoms
• Relationships between areas of symptoms
• Clearing relevant areas

54

What are the two pain rating scales?

- Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS): o a scale of 1-10
- Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain

55

Which pain rating scale is used the most?

The NPRS

56

What are radicular symptoms?

direct stimulation of a nerve root results
in a sharp, lancinating pain, well-localized to the dermatome.

57

What is a visceral referral symptom?

kidney, pancreas, cardiac, etc. - can mimic or masquerade as musculoskeletal pain.

58

What is a somatic referral symptom?

symptoms that arise from referral of a
musculoskeletal structure (i.e. facet jt.)

59

What is a trigger point symptom?

hypersensitive spot typically in skeletal muscle that can be associated with a taut band

60

What happens in the gather specific information step of the subjective exam flow?

• Date of onset
• Mode of onset (injury, any precipitating factors?)
• Gradual onset
• Sudden onset
• Immediate or delayed symptoms after injury?
• Pain and Swelling
• Are symptoms getting better, worse, or status quo?
• Any treatment to date? Effects?
• 24-hour behavior

61

What are the two factors of the behavior of symptoms that are very important?

- Aggravating and easing factors

62

What is a systems review?

Where we are asking questions that relate to the different systems of a given patient

63

What does a systems review do?

It helps us identify red flags

64

What are red flags?

Signs and/or symptoms that may warrant immediate communication with the referring provider or may warrant a referral/consultation to another healthcare
practitioner

65

The present of a single red flag is usually ____ and must be ___

Not much of a concern, and must be put into context with the rest of the patient's presentation(age, gender, med history...)

66

What is a category 1 red flag?

Factors that require immediate medical attention

67

What is a category 2 red flag?

Factors that require subjective questioning and precautionary examination and treatment procedures

68

What is a category 3 red flag?

Factors that require further physical testing and differential analysis

69

What is a yellow flag?

Factors that increase the risk of developing, or perpetuating long-term disability and work loss

70

A yellow flag may warrant ___

May warrant a referral/consultation to a mental health practitioner

71

Examples of a yellow flag

Psychosocial issues:

• Fear avoidant behavior
• Pain catastrophizing
• Loss of pleasure in doing things, feeling hopeless
• High levels of anxiety
• Suicidal ideation

72

What do we do to further refine our hypothesis of a patient?

Establish SINSS

73

What does SINSS stand for?

Severity
Irritability
Nature
Stage
Stability

74

What is severity?

The intensity of the patients symptoms as they relate to a functional activity

75

How is severity rated?

• Minimal = Minimal to no pain (0-3/10), symptoms do not limit or hinder activity

• Moderate = Pain reduces activity levels to 40-70% of normal, pain
rated at 4-7/10

• High = Pain symptoms severely reduce or stop activities; ADLs are
are avoided or severely limited, pain rated at 8-10/10

76

What is irritability?

Time for symptoms to come on and go away

77

How is irritability rated?

• Low = Tolerates repetitive or sustained activities, can cont. activity after the onset of pain, pain eases in short amount of time

• Moderate = Tolerates brief activities or positions < 10 min, cont. light activities after the onset of pain, pain eases in similar time as onset (may be longer)

• High = Activity not tolerated – are avoided, unable to continue activity after the onset of pain, symptoms takes a long time to ease (>30 minutes)

78

What are the two types of nature of a pain?

• Musculoskeletal vs. Non-Musculoskeletal

79

The type of pain often relays information to the clinician regarding the _____

type of tissue involved

80

The nature of pain is a reflection of ____

differential diagnosis and systems review

81

What is the stage?

Time frame since the onset of symptoms

82

What are the stages of pain?

• Acute pain: Recent onset (0-6 weeks)

• Sub-acute pain: Pain may be due to later stages of tissue healing or early stages of developing chronic symptoms (6-12 weeks).

• Chronic pain: Longer duration – usually past expected recovery time
(> 3 months)

83

What is stability?

The progression of the patients pain (or symptoms) over time

84

What are the ways to classify the stability of a patient's pain?

Is the patients pain:
• Getting better
• Staying the same
• Getting worse

85

If a patient has a high severity & irritability we may ____

Limit the SINSS, so as to not make them worse

86

If a patient has a low irritability we may ____

Not limit the exam, so as to reproduce the symptoms

87

Other things SINSS helps us understand

- Contraindications to the examination?
- Vigor of exam?
- Which structures will I examine?
- Will I do a neurological exam?
- Which examination techniques will I perform?

88

What are the reasons to screen a patient?

• Sicker patient/client base: more comorbidities
• Quicker: earlier mobility/discharge of hospital pts same day
surgery
• Disease progression
• Patient/client disclosure
• Presence of one or more yellow (caution) or red (warning) flags
• Direct Access: people coming off the street

89

What is direct access?

The right of the public to obtain examination, evaluation and intervention from a licensed PT w/out previous examination by or referral from a physician, gatekeeper or other practitioner

90

What is primary care?

“…integrated, accessible healthcare by clinicians
who are accountable for addressing a large
majority of personal health care needs,
developing sustained partnerships with
patients…”

91

What is a diagnosis?

Recognition of disease/disorder usually via a collection of relevant signs and symptoms

92

What is a differential diagnosis?

Systematic method to identify the cause
(MSK or non-MSK) of a patient’s symptoms

93

What is a prognosis?

Predicted optimal level of improvement in function taking in consideration of comorbidities, motivation, psychosocial
factors, patient values/goals

94

What are constitutional signs?

are general signs/symptoms that are present when illness is present

95

What are the means of communication?

-Verbal
-Non-verbal
- Written

96

Verbal cues convey ___ of the message

7%

97

Vocal cues are __ of communication

38%

98

Facial cues are __of communication

55%

99

What is effective communication?

Message sent = message received.

New information makes sense to a person by
comparing it to what is already in their minds

100

Sources of communication error

• Language
• Psychological (listener)
• Environmental
• Speech (speaker)

101

Questioning techniques

• Speak slowly
• Speak deliberately
• Keep questions short
• Ask one question at a time
• Begin with open-ended and non-leading questions
• PAUSE – wait for and LISTEN TO response
• Confirm understanding with restatement or
paraphrasing strategies

102

What are open ended questions?

Questions that allows the patient elaborate on their answers

103

Definition of encoding barriers?

The process of selecting and organizing symbols to represent a message requires skill and knowledge.

104

What are the obstacles that can interfere with an effective message?

- Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver
- Lack of Basic Communication Skills
- Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject.
- Information Overload
- . Emotional Interference

105

Transmitting barriers are...

Things that get in the way of message transmission are sometimes called
“noise.”

106

Types transmitting barriers

- Physical Distractions
- Conflicting Messages
- Channel Barriers
- Long Communication Chain

107

Decoding Barriers. The communication cycle may break down at the receiving end for some of these
reasons:

- Lack of Interest
- Lack of Knowledge
- Lack of Communication Skills
- Emotional Distractions
- Physical Distractions

108

Responding Barriers—The communication cycle may be broken if feedback is unsuccessful:

- No Provision for Feedback
- Inadequate Feedback

109

What are the 4 categories of non-verbal communication?

Physical
Aesthetic
Signs
Symbolic

110

What is physical non- verbal communication?

This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.

111

What is aesthetic non- verbal communication?

This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing

112

What is signs non- verbal communication?

This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the
21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.

113

What is symbolic non- verbal communication?

This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols.

114

What are the static features of non- verbal communication?

Distance
Orientation
Posture
Physical contact

115

Static feature: Distance is characterized by...

The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In
some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.

116

Static feature: orientation is characterized by...

People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back. For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors
frequently face one another

117

Static feature: posture is characterized by...

Are we slouched or erect? Are our legs crossed or our arms
folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the
communication exchange.

118

Static feature: physical contact is characterized by...

Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back
all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.

119

What are the dynamic features of non- verbal communication?

- Facial expressions
- Gestures
- Looking

120

Dynamic feature: facial expressions is characterized by...

A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.

121

Dynamic feature: gestures is characterized by...

One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e.g., a clenched
fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.

122

Dynamic feature: looking is characterized by...

A major feature of social communication is eye contact. It can convey emotion, signal
when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom.

123

Definition of non-verbal communication according to Tortoriello, Blott, and DeWine

". . . the exchange of messages primarily through non-linguistic means, including: kinesics (body language), facial expressions and eye contact, tactile communication, space and territory, environment, paralanguage (vocal but non-linguistic cues), and the use of silence and time."

124

Empathic communication is described by Coulehan et al as...

language that aides the process of healing by bolstering patient’s strengths, validating their perspective, and teaching them how to grow to be more self-reliant

125

What are the habits in the 4- habit model?

- Invest in the beginning
- Elicit the patient's perspective
- Demonstrate empathy
- Invest in the end

126

Characteristics of : Invest in the beginning

- Create rapport quickly
- Elicit patient concerns
- Plan the visit with the patient

127

Characteristics of : Elicit the
patient’s perspective

- Ask for patient ideas
- Elicit specific requests
- Explore the impact on the
patient’s life

128

Characteristics of: Demonstrate
empathy

- Be open to patient’s emotions
- Make at least one empathic
statement
- Convey empathy nonverbally
- Be aware of your own
reactions

129

Characteristics of: Invest in the
end

- Deliver diagnostic information
- Provide education
- Involve patient in making
decisions
- Complete the visit