Week 2 Cystic Fibrosis Cumulative Lecture, Module, Article Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 Cystic Fibrosis Cumulative Lecture, Module, Article Deck (105):
1

what are some issues/symptoms that arise due to CF? (4 broad ones)

salty sweat, damage to respiratory system (lung disease due to mucus), chronic digestive issues (pancreatic insufficiency), infertility in males

2

what type of inheritance is CF?

Autosomal Recessive

3

what is the cystic fibrosis gene?

Cystic Firbrosis Transmembrane Coductance Regulator Gene (CFTR gene)

4

CFTR is a member of what super family? what is unique about CFTR within this superfamily?

the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily. CFTR contains an R domain that is not seen in other ABC transporters. Also CFTR does not move ions against their gradients like many ABC transporters do

5

where is the CFTR gene located? How big is it? how big is the protein in produces?

7q31.2. 180,000 bp. 1480 AA

6

what is the structure of CFTR? (domains)

Five domains: (2) Membrane spanning domains (MSD1 and MSD2) each with 6 transmembrane alpha helices. (2) Nucleotide Binding Domains (NBD1 and NBD2) and an R domain

7

What is the function of the MSD?

forms chloride ion chanel

8

what is the function of the NBD?

bind and hydrolyze ATP to open/close ion gate

9

what is the function of the R domain?

responsible for CFTR activation. Ion channels only open when R is phosphorylated by PKA and ATP is bound at NBDs

10

CFTR is described as being a ______ activated and ______ gated ion channel.

cAMP activated and ATP gated

11

how is cAMP involved in CFTR activation?

cAMP-->activates PKA-->PKA phosphorylates and activates the R domain of CFTR

12

give the sequence of events in CFTR opening

1. R domain is phosphorylated by PKA
2. Phosp. of R allows ATP to bind NBD1
3. Hydrolysis of ATP by NBD1 transiently opens ion channel
4. PKA phosphorylates more sites on R
5. NBD2 can bing ATP which stabilizes the open ion channel
6. Hydrolysis and release of ADP closes the ion channel
7. R domain dephosphorylation will also close the channel

13

what is the function of CFTR? (2)

conducts Chloride ions across the PM. CFTR also plays a role in regulating activity/expression of other ion channels, cytoskeletal elements and signal transduction. This occurs through the C-terminal

14

in what type of cells is CFTR found? where within these cells is it located?

Epithelial cells. Apical (lumenal) PM

15

in general, what direction does CFTR move chloride ions?

when active CFTR moves chloride ions down their concentration gradient. This is generally our of epithelial cells (secreted). The exception is seen in sweat glands wher Cl is reabsorbed.

16

what occurs in a Class I CFTR mutation?

CFTR is not produced at all (premature stop codon)

17

what occurs in class II CFTR mutations?

defective protein processing causes CFTR to be degraded before it reaches the PM. misfolded CFTR

18

what occurs in class III CFTR mutations?

defective channel regulation or gating. gating defect

19

what occurs in a class IV CFTR mutations?

defective chloride conductance (restricted Cl movement thru channel.)

20

what occurs in a class V CFTR mutation?

reduced amount of CFTR protein (alternative splicing)

21

what occurs in a class VI CFTR mutation?

accelerated turnover of surface CFTR

22

what is the most common class of CFTR mutation? what is the most common mutation that leads to this? what percent of CF cases does this correlate to?

Class II. caused by DeltaF508 (deletion of Phe at position 508). about 70% of CF cases have this mutation

23

deltaF508 causes which structural change in CFTR?

a change in NBD1

24

outline normal sweat duct fucnciton

1. isotonic secretion enters the secretory coil
2. due to Na's high electrochemical gradient it is reabsorbed through epithelial Na carriers (ENaC)
3. Cl is electricaly attracted to Na and follows Na into the cell through apical CFTR
4. the duct is impermeable to water so water cannot follow the ions
5. the sweat duct excretes a hypotonic sweat

25

what are the two portions of a sweat duct?

secretory coil, and reabsorptive coil

26

outline the sweat duct seen in CF

Cl movement is essentially gone. Na movement is also reduced suggesting CFTR activates ENaC in SWEAT DUCTS. Very little reabsorption of Na and Cl results in a salty sweat

27

describe ion and water movement in normal epithelial cells of the lungs

1. CFTR allows Cl to move down its gradient and be secreted from epithelial cells into the respiratory mucosa (lumen)
2. CFTR also suppresses Na ion channels (ENaC) limiting the amount of Na that enters the epithelial cell from the lumen
3. high lumenal NaCl draws water out of the cells and contributes to the airway surface liquid (ASL)

28

What is the role/fxn of Airway surface liquid?

provides a microenvironment for beating cilia to clear mucus

29

describe ion and water movement in epithelial cells of the lungs in individuals with CF (low-volume model)

1. lack of CFTR prevents Cl from being secreted to lumen
2. ENaC are not inhibited and Na and H20 move into the cell (reabsorbed)
3. decreased water in lumen decreases ALS which decreases the ability of cilia to move mucus and makes the mucus more viscous

30

How does cilia's inability to move mucus in the airways lead to scarring of the lungs/airways?

stagnant mucous leads to mucus obstructions, infections, and inflammation. these all contribute to scarring of the lungs.

31

generally, what kills most people with CF?

end-stage lung disease from excessive scarring of the lungs.

32

in patients with CF the ability to _____ Cl is impaired

secrete

33

describe the function of normal CFTR in pancreatic function

CFTR secretes Cl to the lumen. H20 follow along with HCO3 to modulate pH

34

what effects are seen in the pancreas of people with CF?

CFTR does not secrete Cl into lumen. Less water moves to lumen. Viscous pancreatic juice is produced and enzymes are not delivered to duodenum (blocked pancreatic ducts).

35

How can CF lead to diabetes?

Blocked pancreatic ducts trap pancreatic enzymes. Trapped enzymes damage pancreatic cells affecting the production of insulin and causing diabetes

36

a patient comes in with less than 1% CFTR function, what are the likely clinical features?

pancreatic insufficiency, pulmonary infection, positive sweat test, congenital absence of vas deferens

37

a patient comes in with less than 4.5% CFTR function, what are the likely clinical features?

pulmonary infection, positive sweat test, absence of vas deferens

38

a patient comes in with less than 5% but more than 4.5% CFTR function, what are the likely clinical features?

positive sweat test, absence of vas deferens

39

a patient comes in with less than 10% but more than 5% CFTR function, what are the likely clinical features?

absence of vas deferens

40

a patient comes in with 10% CFTR function, what are the likely clinical features?

none this person wont have CF

41

in individuals with CF, what classes of mutations will likely lead to pancreatic insufficiency?

Class I, Class II, Class III

42

we have seen that CF can impair lung function, pancreatic function and produce salty sweat? Describe the correlation between genotype and phenotype seen in these symptoms.

pancreatic: strong
sweat chloride: moderate
lung fxn: weak

43

To treat CF, do we need to drastically improve CFTR function?

No, we have seen that CFTR function over 10% is sufficient to eliminate symptoms

44

what potentially explains why 4-5% of caucasians are heterozygous for CF yet the rate of random mutations causing CF never exceeds 1%?

when cholera was a big issue being recessive for CF (having half the amount of CFTR) meant people would not lose as much water due to cholera toxin

45

how does cholera toxin work?

1. A1 subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates alpha subunit of Gs-protien

2. Gs-protein can no longer hydrolyze GTP to GDP and is always active

3. Gs continually activates adenylyl cylcase which increases the amount of cAMP

4. cAMP activates PKA which phosphorylates and activates CFTR

5. Chloride is continuously secreted and water follows salt

6. excess water loss and fatal dehydration

46

what is the average life expectancy in the US for individuals with CF?

40s

47

what does NBS stand for (not a protein)

Newborn Screening

48

what is the carrier frequency (CF) for A. Jewish, White-non jews, and african americans

AJ: 1 in 24
CnJ: 1 in 25
AA: 1 in 61

49

What is quantitiative pilocarpine iontophoresis? When should it be used

this is the CF sweat test. This should be the first diagnostic test for CF when there is clinical suspicion of CF

50

what is Nasal potential difference test? when is it used

Measures salt transport in and out of nasal cells in response to different salt solution. A test for CF. difficult to perform and not done at all CF centers. mostly done for research

51

A sweat [Cl] less than 40 mmol/L should e interpreted as...

normal

52

a sweat [Cl} greater than 60 mmol/L should be interpreted as...

positive diagnosis of CF

53

non-sense, frame shift, and splice site mutaions typically lead to which type of CF?

Type I. Reduced or absent CFTR transcription

54

Even if deltaF580 can be made to make it to the PM (type II), what is its likely fate?

it will become a class VI mutation and be taken into the cell too early

55

what would a therapy for class I mutations in CF have to accomplish?

the compound would have to allow for read-through of premature stop codons

56

what would a therapy for class II mutations in CF have to accomplish?

the compound would have to help properly fold and locate CFTR to the cell surface

57

what would a therapy for class III mutations in CF have to accomplish?

Potentiator. Improve CFTR function to transport Cl

58

p. Gly551Asp (G551D) is what class of mutation? how common is this mutation? can it be fixed?

Class III. second most common mutation at 4% of CF popn. can be treated with Kalydeco (ivacaftor)

59

what is the difference between a cis acting variant and a trans acting variant?

cis-acting are on the SAME chromosome (two different mutations on the same chromosome, affecting the same gene)

trans-acting are on homologous chromosomes. Each gene on each chromosome is affected

60

what is the significance of the poly-T tract?

CFTR has a poly-T tract located in the non-coding region (intron 8). These Ts can influence splicing of exon 9 in pre-mRNA

61

what types of poly-T are seen? which are "normal" which are detrimental?

9T (normal), 7T (normal), 5T (detrimental)

62

if a person is homozygous for 5T (5T/5T), will they have CF?

no. there will still be enough normal CFTR made (10%)

63

what does Kayldeco (ivacaftor) treat?

Type III mutation of CF p.G551D

64

what are TG tracts in CFTR gene?

located adjacent to the poly-T tracts of CFTR gene. Also alter splicing.

65

in general increasing/decreasing the number of poly-T and TG tracts makes its effects on CFTR more detrimental

decreasing the length of T-tracts (5T)

Increasing the number of TGs (TG12 and TG13 are the most detrimental)

66

The effects of TG tracts and poly-T tracts show how....

cis-acting variants can cause more significant symptoms than each variant alone

67

if a person is homozygous for 5T 13TG alleles what is the likely outcome?

may act as CF-causing mutation, but likely mild. risk for male infertility

68

if a person is homozygous for 5T 11TG allels what is the likely outcome/

unlikely to act as a CF-causing mutation. still a risk for male infertility

69

how do you tell if a mutation is cis- (on the same chromosome) or trans- (on different chromosome) for a mutation. Ex; a person is p.Arg117His and 5T/7T are they p. Arg117His 5T and 7T or p.Arg117His 7T and 5T

mutation analysis will not give info on cis or trans. parental testing may be the best bet.

70

historicaly p. Phe508del is generally with what poly-T tract?

9T

71

Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens: genotype/phenotype correlation

CBAVD nearly always occurs. CBAVD may be present even in the absence of pancreatic/lung findings

72

what is a compound heterozygote?

The presence of two different mutant alleles at a particular gene locus, one on each chromosome of a pair.

73

what is the difference between a classical and non-classical mutation in CFRT

classical: severe
non-classical: mild

74

if a compound heterozygote has one classical mutation (PI) and one noncalssical muation (PS), will they likely be PI or PS?

PS. the mild mutation typically trumps the severe mutation

75

what are 5 CF genetic tests

targeted mutation testing, mutation panels, sequence analysis, del/dup testing, sequence and del/dup analysis

76

when would you use a targeted mutation test?

when you are looking for one or two specific mutations (you know what you are looking for!). most often done for familial mutations

77

when would CF mutation panels suggested to be used?

CF carrier screening is recommended to every preconceptional or pregnant woman

78

how many specific mutations does a minimal panel for CARRIER screening look for?

23 specific mutations

79

how does sequence analysis work?

reads through and looks for mutations in all important areas of the gene (exons, introns, splice sites)

80

what percent of mutations will sequence analysis detect?

98%

81

what are some downfalls of sequence analysis in CF genetic testing?

detects unclassified CFTR variants (difficult to interpret)

does not detect large deletions or duplications

82

why wont sequence analysis detect large deletions or duplications in DNA?

only reads what info is present. does not measure dosage of each chromosome. two copies of CFTR or 1 copy of CFTR would give same result.

83

what is del/dup analysis

measures the relative abundance of DNA present in a cell. gives you info about dosage and therefore dup/del

84

what % of CFTR mutations are due to del/dup?

about 2%

85

what is the most thorough genetic testing clinically available for CF?

sequence+del/dup analysis

86

what is the issue with sequence + del/dup analyis?

slow turn around time, more expensive than other tests

87

what is the difference between the sweat test and genetic tests?

sweat test tells you if you have CF, genetic test tells you why you have CF

88

Linda just had a sequence + del/dup analysis done for CF and came back negative. Does this mean she does not have CF/is not a carrier?

NO!

89

How are newborns screened for CF?

IRT from a heelstick
Immunoreactive trypsinogen (which is a pancreatic enzyme precursor elevated in babies with CF) is acquired from blood taken from the heel

90

a sweat test cant be performed immediately on a newborn, why?

sweat chloride is normally elevated in a newborn, want to ensure you can get sweat. Baby comes back just before five weeks

91

If a baby has an IRT

negative screen, low risk no follow up needed

92

if a newborn has an IRT within the top 4th%ile for that day what is the course of action?

mutation panel to test for 42 common mutations
1. no mutations found: low risk, negative screen
2. 1 mutation found: moderate risk, arrange sweat chloride
3. 2 mutations found: high risk, arrange for DNA blood testing

93

what is Orkambi used for?

treatment of class two CF specifically people who have F508del CFTR mutation. (improves CFTR by 6% does not improve sweat test)

94

what is meconium ileus?

bowel obstruciton that occurs when meconium of child is thicker and stickier than normal (meconium: childs first poo)

95

what are some clinical clues to diagnosing a CF? (5)

meconium ileus, failure to thrive, chronic respiratory disease with sinus disease, rectal prolapse, newborn screening

96

what are some complications that arise from a failure to diagnose CF during infancy? (7)

hypo- chloremia, natremia, proteinemia. and vitamin A, D, E, K defficiency

97

why are CF patients vitamin A,D,E,K deficient?

pancreas cant absorb fat soluble vitamins

98

what is one body system that CF doesnt impact?

CNS

99

what is the most common bacteria in CF patients 17 and up?

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

100

what are the usual treatments used on someone with CF to improve quality and length of life? (6)

nasojejunal feeds, enzyme replacement, Vitamins added (ADEK), antibiotics, mucolytics, chest physiotherapy

101

the C-terminal of CFTR has what three proteins? these interact with what receptor known to play a role in intracellular signaling

Thr, Arg, Leu which anchor to PDZ-type receptors

102

the high-salt model of CF effects on the lungs suggests what?

suggests airways behave in a similar fashion to sweat ducts. elevated sodium chloride levels in airways inactivate endoegenous antimicrobial peptides that predispose patients to bacterial infections

103

What drug has been approved (FDA) to treat Type III p. G551D? How does this drug fxn

Kalydeco AKA Ivacaftor. This drug is a potentiator meaning it increases the effectiveness of CFTR regulatory domains (R and NBD1/2

104

What drug has been approved to treat Type II mutation delF508?

Orkambi. This is a combination of Kalydeco AKA ivacaftor(potentiator) and lumacaftor

105

what is the chief contributor of morbidity and mortality in CF patients

mucosal obstruction of exocrine glands

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