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Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (42):
1

What is professionalism

Described as a moral contract that exists between a professional and the public
An implicit agreement enabling patients to place their trust in medical professionals during times of extreme vulnerability, fear and anxiety

2

Name 5 barriers to changing practice

Issues of identity and social language
Power and control
Political processes involving contestation of ideas and values
Dynamic instability of practices that are new
Structure of medical education experience

3

What is professional learning

Developing a sense of professional identity and how this shapes meaning, making practice including ways of working with others in the professional community

4

What is meant by identity

Behaviour, expectation, values
Power, authority, status,
Social space
Theory and experise becoming political instruments

5

Define 'habitus'

nonconcious bulk of identity
unconcious assumption about way world works

6

What is identity consonance

Experience of acquiring a new identity when it blends smoothly with other internalised personality identities

7

What is dissonance

When ones personal identities are dissonant with the professional role

8

Why are medical ethics important (4)

Protect human rights
Ensure professionals perform duties and responsibilities
Understand consequences of our actions
Promote virture

9

What are the 3 branches of ethics

- Study of natural philosophy (world around us)
- Study of moral philosophy (how we should act)
- Study of the metaphysical (why we are here)

10

What are bioethics

Applied ethics
Study of moral, social and political problems that directly/ indirectly affect human wellbeing

11

What is the declaration of Helsinki

- Duty to promote and safeguard health and wellbeing of patients and research subjects

12

What are the 4 principles of medical ethics

Autonomy: allowing others to make decisions and not act according to their own wishes
Non malifience: do no harm
Justice: fair
Benficence: acting for good of individuals and society``

13

What is meant by competence

Sufficient capacity to perform task at hand
Can recall information
Select choice rationally
Evaluate beliefs

14

What is governance

Processes, structure and organised traditions that determine how power is exercised, how decisions are made and how decision makers are held to account

15

What are the 7 pillars of clinical governance`

Service user
Risk management
Clinical audit
Staffing
Educatiion
Clinical effectiveness
Clinical information

16

3 models suggested to define stress

1) Engineering model: stress is a stimulus
2) Medicophysiological model: stress is a response
3) Psychological model: stress is a transaction between person and environment

17

4 elements of a stress response

Cognitive
Emotional
Behavioural
Physiological

18

In what % of acute hospital admissions is a diagnosis missed

5-14%

19

What is the person approach to human error

Heathcare professional responsible
Forgetfullness, negligence, poor motivation, carelessness, inattention

20

What are some weaknesses of the person approach

Prevents analysis of what went wrong
Doesn't recognise that most errors happen in patterns
Suggests only bad doctors make mistakes

21

What is the systems approach to errors

Mistakes are inevitable because humans are fallible
Errors are consequences rather than causes

22

What are heruristics

Cognitive shortguts/ decisional shortcuts (rule of thumb/ common sense)

23

What is cognitive bias

Systemic and predictable errors in judgement resulting from reliance on heuristics

24

What is meant by availability

- Things seem more likely if they readily come to mind- if disease seen recently may over diagnose

25

What is representativeness

Diagnosis seems more likely based on how similar characteristics are to similar cases

26

What is anchoring

Perceived probability of event/ diagnosis based on one trait or piece of info

27

What is diagnosis momentum

Once labels are attached to patients they get stickier and stickier

28

What is fundamental attribution error

Tendency to blame people for their illness rather than the circumstance

29

What is evidence based decision making

Process for making decisions about a program, practice or policy that is grounded in best research evidence and informed by experimental evidence from the field and relevant contextual evidence

30

4 steps of decision making progress

Gathering info
Interpreting data
Applying what you've learned from evidence

31

What is an audit

Systemic critical analysis of the quality of clinical care including procedures

32

What are health economics

Branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behaviour in the production and consumption of health and healthcare

33

4 ps of trauma informed public health approaches for adults/ children

Prevent
Protect (from toxic stress)
Prepare
Promote (healthy oppurtunities)

34

What is an undocumented migrant

Somebody who stays n UK without documents required under immigration regulations

35

What is a refused asylum seeker

Person whose asylum application has been unsuccessful

36

What is a refugee

Somebody whose asylum application was accepted

37

Give some examples of undocumented migrants

People who don't claim asylum due to lack of legal advice
Survivors of traffiking
People who came eas children
People who work without a visa
People whose visa has expired

38

Can undocumented migrants access GP

Yes

39

What groups are exempt from secondary healthcare charges

Destitute families
Survivors of sexual or domestic violence
Survivors of trafficking
Mental health act

40

What % of people over the age of 65 live alone

36

41

What % of elderly people living alone are women

70

42

Whats the difference between biographical and historical time

Biographical time--> processes that occur in individual persons life
Historical time--> effect of cohort effects